Cargo Securing Manual



CARGO
SECURING
MANUAL


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
This Example Cargo Securing Manual contains extracts from the IMO publications listed below, reproduced with the kind permission of the International Maritime Organisation.
MSC/Circ.745 - “Guidelines for the Preparation of the Cargo Securing Manual”.
Resolution A.715(17) - “Code of Safe Practice for Ships Carrying Timber Deck Cargoes, 1991”.
MSC/Circ.675 - “Recommendations on the Safe Transport of Dangerous Cargoes and Related Activities in Port Areas”.



Resolution A.748(18) - “Code for the Safe Carriage of Irradiated Nuclear Fuel, Plutonium and High-level Radioactive Wastes in Flasks on Board Ships”.
Resolution A.489(XII) - ”Safe Stowage and Securing of cargo units and other entities in Ships other than cellular containerships”.
MSC/Circ.385 - “Containers and Cargoes (BC) Cargo Securing Manual”.
Resolution A.533(13) - “Elements to be taken into account when considering the safe stowage and securing of cargo units and vehicles in ships”.
Resolution A.581(14) - “Guidelines for Securing Arrangements for the Transport of Road Vehicles on Ro-Ro Ships”.
Resolution A.714(17) - “Code of Safe Practice for Cargo Stowage and Securing” and amendments thereto.
MSC/Circ.1026 - “Amendments to the Code of Safe Practice for Cargo Stowage and Securing (CSS Code)”.

Acknowledgement is also given for extracts from the following references included in this Example Cargo Securing Manual, and indicated by numbered superscripts.
1 Reference with acknowledgement to J.R. Knott, “Lashing and Securing of Deck Cargoes”, The Nautical Institute.
2 Reference with acknowledgement to The United Kingdom Mutual Steam Ship Assurance Association (Bermuda) Limited, “Carefully to Carry”, UK P&I Club.
3 Reference with acknowledgement to The Department of Transport, “Code of Safe Working Practices for Merchant Seamen”, published for Marine Safety Agency.
4 Reference with acknowledgement to International Labour Office Geneva, “Accident Prevention on Board Ship at Sea and in Port”.
Figures 1 to 8 in Appendix 2C of this Example Manual are reproduced with the kind permission of Peck & Hale.

Foreword

Cargo Securing Manuals are required to be carried on all ships to which the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 (SOLAS), as amended, applies, including cargo ships of less than 500 tons gross tonnage. It can further be said that Cargo Securing Manuals are required to be carried on all cargo ships, except those engaged solely in the carriage of bulk cargoes, either solid or liquid. Passenger ships also engaged in the carriage of cargo must be provided with a manual, as should specialised vessels such as pipe and cable layers, and offshore supply vessels.

Solid bulk cargoes are to be stowed in accordance with the IMO Code of Safe Practice for Solid Bulk Cargoes.

Timber deck cargoes are to be stowed in accordance with the IMO Code of Safe Practice for Ships Carrying Timber Deck Cargoes, 1991 or in the case of ships having timber load lines the International Convention on Load Lines 1966.


Example manual

This Example Cargo Securing Manual is based upon the Guidelines for the Preparation of the Cargo Securing Manual, IMO MSC/Circ.745.

The purpose of this Example Manual is to provide guidance to those involved in the preparation of Cargo Securing Manuals, it is not intended to replace the requirements of MSC/Circ.745, but merely to suggest appropriate wording, and highlight the details and information to be included in such a Manual.

The Cargo Securing Manual does not replace any requirement to comply with the various Guidelines and Codes of Safe Practice for the Stowage and Securing of cargo entities. Extracts from these Guidelines and Codes have been incorporated into this Example Manual where appropriate, it will be necessary for a copy of the Code relevant to the vessels in your fleet to be consulted in addition to this manual.

This Example Manual covers all ship types, the Manual submitted for approval however, should be specific to the ship for which it is intended. This will involve deletion of some of the information included in this example, and the addition of plans, sketches, calculations and further information relating to the operation and safe use of the fixed and portable securing devices provided on board.

The following styles of text have been used in the preparation of this Example Manual:

1 Ariel type indicates text to be included in all Cargo Securing Manuals;

2 Text in normal type represents example wording which could be used;

3 Notes on the preparation of the Manual, and information to be included, are printed in italics.


Cargo securing manual


NAME OF SHIP
IMO NUMBER
FLAG
PORT OF REGISTRY
CALL SIGN
GROSS TONNAGE (tonnes)
TYPE OF SHIP
SERVICE SPEED (knots)
GM RANGE (metres)



DIMENSIONS OF SHIP

LENGTH (Overall)
LENGTH (BP)
BREADTH (Moulded)
DEPTH (Moulded)
DRAUGHT
No. 1 Hold (L x B x D)
No. 1 Tween Deck (L x B x D) -
No. 2 etc. -


Introduction

1 The information contained in this Cargo Securing Manual, required in accordance with the 1994 amendments to the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 (SOLAS) VI/5.6 and VII/6.6, is in an approved form in accordance with the Guidelines for the Preparation of the Cargo Securing Manual, MSC/Circ.745.

2 The purpose of this manual is to provide guidance to the Master and crew on board the vessel with respect to the proper stowage and securing of cargo units.

3 The Owner should ensure that the manual is appropriate for both the type of cargo to be loaded and the fixed and portable securing arrangements onboard.

3 It is the Masters responsibility to ensure that cargo and cargo units (as defined in MSC/Circ.745) are at all times stowed and secured in an efficient manner, taking into account the prevailing conditions and the general principals of safe stowage set out in this Manual, and that the securing equipment and timber used are adequate for the loadings calculated in accordance with this Manual.

4 The Master and other personnel planning and supervising the stowage and securing of cargo should have a sound practical knowledge of the application and content of this manual.

5 This Manual should be kept on board the vessel for inspection by Port/Flag State inspectors, Classification Society Surveyors and other interested parties.

6 This manual has been approved by Lloyd’s Register on behalf of the Government of ....................................................................

7 The information contained in or appended to this manual should be regularly reviewed and updated. With the exception of the lists of portable cargo securing devices where equipment is replaced with new equipment of an identical type, amendments should not be made to this Manual without the approval of Lloyd’s Register.

8 This manual is in the English language and it is assumed that this is a language understood by the ships personnel engaged in the operations described in this manual. If this is not the case, then it is the shipowners responsibility to provide a copy of this manual accurately translated into an appropriate language.

SOLAS Chapter VI, Regulation 5 (including 1998 amendments)
Carriage of cargoes - Stowage and securing

1 Cargo and cargo units carried on or under deck shall be so loaded, stowed and secured as to prevent as far as is practicable, throughout the voyage, damage or hazard to the ship and the persons on board, and loss of cargo overboard.

2 Cargo carried in a cargo unit shall be so packed and secured within the unit as to prevent, throughout the voyage, damage or hazard to the ship and the persons on board.

3 Appropriate precautions shall be taken during loading and transport of heavy cargoes or cargoes with abnormal physical dimensions to ensure that no structural damage to the ship occurs and to maintain adequate stability throughout the voyage.

4 Appropriate precautions shall be taken during loading and transport of cargo units on board ro-ro ships, especially with regard to the securing arrangements on board such ships and on the cargo units and with regard to the strength of the securing points and lashings.

5 Containers shall not be loaded to more than the maximum gross weight indicated on the Safety Approval Plate under the International Convention for Safe Containers (CSC).

6 All cargoes, other than solid and liquid bulk cargoes, shall be loaded, stowed and secured throughout the voyage in accordance with the Cargo Securing Manual approved by the Administration. In ships with ro-ro cargo spaces, as defined in regulation II-2/3.14, all securing of such cargoes, in accordance with the Cargo Securing Manual, shall be completed before the ship leaves berth. The Cargo Securing Manual shall be drawn up to a standard at least equivalent to relevant guidelines developed by the Organization (IMO MSC/Circ.745).


SOLAS Chapter VII, Regulation 6 (including 1998 amendments)
Carriage of dangerous goods - Stowage and securing

1 Dangerous goods shall be loaded, stowed and secured safely and appropriately in accordance with the nature of the goods. Incompatible goods shall be segregated from one another.

2 Explosives (except ammunition) which present a serious risk shall be stowed in a magazine which shall be kept securely closed while at sea. Such explosives shall be segregated from detonators. Electrical apparatus and cables in any compartment in which explosives are carried shall be so designed and used as to minimize the risk of fire or explosion.

3 Dangerous goods in packaged form which give off dangerous vapours shall be stowed in a mechanically ventilated space or on deck. Dangerous goods in solid form in bulk which give off dangerous vapours shall be stowed in a well ventilated space.

4 In ships carrying flammable liquids or gases, special precautions shall be taken where where necessary against fire or explosion.

5 Substances which are liable to spontaneous heating or combustion shall not be carried unless adequate precautions have been taken to minimize the likelihood of the outbreak of fire.

6 All cargoes, other than solid and liquid bulk cargoes, shall be loaded, stowed and secured throughout the voyage in accordance with the Cargo Securing Manual approved by the Administration. In ships with ro-ro cargo spaces, as defined in regulation II-2/3.14, all securing of such cargoes, in accordance with the Cargo Securing Manual, shall be completed before the ship leaves berth. The Cargo Securing Manual shall be drawn up to a standard at least equivalent to relevant guidelines developed by the Organization (IMO MSC/Circ.745).


Guidelines for the Preparation of the Cargo Securing Manual, MSC/Circ.745 (including 2002 amendments)

1 In accordance with the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 (SOLAS) chapters VI, VII and the Code of Safe Practice for Cargo Stowage and Securing, cargo units, including containers shall be stowed and secured throughout the voyage in accordance with a Cargo Securing Manual, approved by the Administration.

2 The Cargo Securing Manual is required on all types of ships engaged in the carriage of all cargoes other than solid and liquid bulk cargoes.

3 The purpose of these guidelines is to ensure that Cargo Securing Manuals cover all relevant aspects of cargo stowage and securing and to provide a uniform approach to the preparation of Cargo Securing Manuals, their layout and content.

4 It is important that securing devices meet acceptable functional and strength criteria applicable to the ship and its cargo. It is also important that the officers on board are aware of the magnitude and direction of the forces involved and the correct application and limitations of the cargo securing devices. The crew and other persons employed for the securing of cargoes should be instructed in the correct application and use of the cargo securing devices on board the ship.

Contents


Chapter 1
General

1.1 Definitions

1.2 General information


Chapter 2
Securing devices and arrangements

2.1 Specification for fixed cargo securing devices

2.2 Specification for portable cargo securing devices

2.3 Inspection and maintenance schemes


Chapter 3
Stowage and securing of non-standardized and semi-standardized cargo

3.1 Handling and safety instructions

3.2 Evaluation of forces acting on cargo units

3.3 Application of portable securing devices on various cargo units, vehicles and stowage blocks

Annex 1
Safe stowage and securing of containers on deck of ships which are not specially designed and fitted for the purpose of carrying containers

Annex 2
Safe stowage and securing of portable tanks

Annex 3
Safe stowage and securing of portable receptacles

Annex 4
Safe stowage and securing of wheel-based (rolling) cargoes

Annex 5
Safe stowage and securing of heavy cargo items such as locomotives, transformers, etc.

Annex 6
Safe stowage and securing of coiled sheet steel

Annex 7
Safe stowage and securing of heavy metal products

Annex 8
Safe stowage and securing of anchor chains

Annex 9
Safe stowage and securing of metal scrap in bulk

Annex 10
Safe stowage and securing of flexible intermediate bulk containers

Annex 11
General guidelines for the under-deck stowage of logs

Annex 12
Safe stowage and securing of unit loads


3.4 Supplementary requirements for ro-ro ships

3.5 Bulk carriers

3.6 Timber deck cargoes

3.7 Vessels engaged in the carriage of irradiated nuclear fuel, plutonium and high-level radioactive wastes in flasks.

3.8 Offshore supply vessels.

3.9 Other specialised craft.


Chapter 4
Stowage and securing of containers and other standardized cargo

4.1 Handling and safety instructions

4.2 Stowage and securing instructions

4.3 Other allowable stowage patterns

4.4 Forces acting on cargo units


Appendix 1A List and/or plan of the fixed cargo securing devices

Appendix 1B Certification for fixed cargo securing devices

Appendix 1C Layout and location of the fixed cargo securing devices

Appendix 2A List of portable cargo securing devices

Appendix 2B Certification for portable cargo securing devices

Appendix 2C Manufacturers instructions on the proper handling of securing devices

Appendix 3 Record of cargo securing device inspection and maintenance

Chapter 1
General


1.1 Definitions

Definitions of terms used in this Manual:

“Cargo Units” means vehicles (road vehicles, roll trailers, etc.), railway wagons, containers, flats, pallets, portable tanks, intermediate bulk containers (IBC), packaged units, unit loads, other cargo carrying units such as shipping cassettes, cargo entities such as steel coils and heavy cargo items such as locomotives and transformers. Loading equipment, or any part thereof, transported on the ship, but which is not permanently fixed to the ship, is also considered as cargo units.

“Cargo Securing Devices” is all fixed and portable devices used to secure and support Cargo Units.

“Maximum Securing Load” (MSL) is a term used to define the allowable load capacity for a device used to secure cargo to a ship. “Safe Working Load” (SWL) may be substituted for MSL for securing purposes, provided this is equal to or exceeds the strength defined by MSL.

“Standardized Cargo” means cargo for which the ship is provided with an approved securing system based upon cargo units of specific types.

“Semi-standardized Cargo” means cargo for which the ship is provided with a securing system capable of accommodating a limited variety of cargo units, such as vehicles, trailers, etc.

“Non-standardized Cargo” means cargo which requires individual stowage and securing arrangements.

Note: Any other definitions pertinent to the equipment and trade of the vessel for which this Manual is written should be included here.

“Intermediate bulk container” (IBC) means a rigid, semi-rigid or flexible portable bulk container packaging of a capacity of not more than 3 m³ (3,000 litres), designed for mechanical handling and tested for its satisfactory resistance to handling and transport stresses.

“Portable tank” means a tank which is not permanently secured on board a ship, and has a capacity of more than 450 litres and a shell fitted with external stabilizing members and items of service equipment and structural equipment necessary for the transport of gases, liquids or solids.

“Road tank-vehicle” means a vehicle with wheels and fitted with a tank or tanks intended for the transport of gases, liquids or solids by both road and sea modes of transport, the tank or tanks of which are rigidly and permanently attached to the vehicle during all normal operations of loading, transport and discharge and are neither filled nor emptied on board.

“Road vehicle” means a commercial vehicle, semi-trailer, road train, articulated road train or a combination of vehicles.

“Commercial vehicle” means a motor vehicle which, on account of its design and appointments, is used mainly for conveying goods. It may also be towing a trailer.

“Semi-trailer” means a trailer which is designed to be coupled to a semi-trailer towing vehicle and to impose a substantial part of its total mass on the towing vehicle.

“Road train” means the combination of a motor vehicle with one or more independent trailers connected by a draw-bar. (For the purpose of considering securing points on road vehicles, each element of a road train is considered a separate vehicle.)

“Articulated road train” means the combination of a semi-trailer towing vehicle with a semi-trailer.

“Combination of vehicles” means a motor vehicle coupled with one or more towed vehicles. (For the purpose of considering securing points on road vehicles, each element of a combination of vehicles is considered a separate vehicle.)

“Roll-trailer” means a low vehicle for the carriage of cargo with one or more wheel axles on the rear and a support on the front end, which is towed or pushed in the port to and from its stowage on board the ship by a special tow-vehicle.

“Ro-ro ship” means a ship which has one or more decks either closed or open, not normally subdivided in any way and generally running the entire length of the ship, in which goods (packaged or in bulk, in or on road vehicles (including road tank-vehicles), trailers, containers, pallets, demountable or portable tanks or in or on similar cargo transport units or other receptacles) can be loaded or unloaded normally in a horizontal direction.

“Unit load” means that a number of packages are either:
1 placed or stacked, and secured by strapping, shrink-wrapping or other suitable means, on to a load board such as a pallet; or
2 placed in a protective outer packaging such as a pallet box; or
3 permanently secured together in a sling.

“Offshore supply vessel” (OSV) means a vessel which is used for the transportation of stores, materials, equipment or personnel to, from and between offshore installations.

1.2 General information
1 The guidance given herein should by no means rule out the principles of good seamanship, neither can they replace experience in stowage and securing practice.
2 The information and requirements set forth in this Manual are consistent with the requirements of the vessel’s trim and stability booklet, International Load Line Certificate (1966), the hull strength loading manual (if provided) and with the requirements of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) Code (if applicable).
3 This Cargo Securing Manual specifies arrangements and cargo securing devices provided on board the ship for the correct application to and the securing of cargo units, containers, vehicles and other entities, based on transverse, longitudinal and vertical forces which may arise during adverse weather and sea conditions.
4 It is imperative to the safety of the ship and the protection of the cargo and personnel that the securing of the cargo is carried out properly and that only appropriate securing points or fittings should be used for cargo securing.
5 The cargo securing devices mentioned in this manual should be applied so as to be suitable and adapted to the quantity, type of packaging, and physical properties of the cargo to be carried. When new or alternative types of cargo securing devices are introduced, the Cargo Securing Manual should be revised accordingly. Alternative cargo securing devices introduced should not have less strength than the equipment which it replaces.
6 There should be a sufficient quantity of reserve cargo securing devices on board the ship.
7 Information on the strength and instructions for the use and maintenance of each specific type of cargo securing device, where applicable, is provided in this manual. The cargo securing devices should be maintained in a satisfactory condition. Items worn or damaged to such an extent that their quality is impaired should be replaced.
8 Any equipment supplied by stevedoring companies for the securing of specific cargoes shall be appropriately certified in accordance with sub-chapter 2.2 of this manual.

1.2.1 Stowage and securing of cargoes by stevedores

General

Notwithstanding that the instructions and guidance given in this manual are directed at the vessel’s Master and crew, in many instances cargoes will be loaded and secured by personnel of Stevedoring Companies/Bodies retained either directly by the vessel’s Owners (or their agents) or through the Port Authority.

In view of this the following instructions are included in the manual to clarify the responsibilities of the vessel’s Master and crew when cargo is being stowed and secured by Stevedores.

Stowage and Securing

It remains the duty of the Master and the Officer on duty during cargo loading operations to ensure that all cargo units are stowed and secured in accordance with the instructions and guidance given in this manual.

The Master and/or the Officer on duty should adequately monitor and supervise Stevedoring personnel so as to ensure that the instructions and guidance in this manual are complied with.

In addition to complying with the instructions and guidance relating to the securing of cargo units, Stevedore personnel should also comply with all relevant safety instructions and guidance. This should include safe handling of securing devices, safe securing and unsecuring of cargo, safe access to spaces and personal safety (e.g. wearing of helmets, protective clothing, footwear, fall protection etc.).

Use by Stevedore personnel of alternative methods of securing cargoes, not included in this manual, should not be accepted unless they can be shown to be at least as effective as the methods described herein.

The Master and/or the Officer on duty are required to confirm this by reference to either the Rule of Thumb Method or the Advanced Calculation Method and/or by reference to good cargo securing practice.

Provision of Portable Securing Devices

Where Stevedores provide and use portable cargo securing devices from their own supply or from a shore-based supply or any supply other than the vessel’s own stores, such devices should be of a similar type and be subject to the same inspection and maintenance requirements to the devices described in this manual.

The Master and/or the Officer responsible for inspection and maintenance of cargo securing devices should ensure that all devices used by Stevedores are satisfactory for the intended service and should be satisfied that the Stevedores have exercised at least the same level of inspection and maintenance as recommended in this manual for portable securing devices.

The Master and/or Officer responsible may achieve this by reference to Stevedores records and/or by inspection of a representative sample of the cargo securing devices.

Chapter 2
Securing devices and arrangements
2.1 Specification for fixed cargo securing devices.
This sub-chapter indicates and where necessary illustrates the number, locations, type and MSL of the fixed devices used to secure cargo and should as a minimum contain the following information:
.1 A list and/or plan of the fixed cargo securing devices, which should be supplemented with appropriate documentation for each type of device as far as practicable. The appropriate documentation (i.e. certificates) should include information as applicable regarding:
(i) Name of manufacturer
(ii) Type designation of item with simple sketch for ease of identification
(iii) Material(s)
(iv) Identification marking (Identification markings consist of marks using paint or stamped impressions indicating the manufacturer, serial or other similar type of identifying number of the device.)
(v) Strength test result or ultimate tensile strength test result (i.e. BL: Breaking Load)
(vi) Result of non destructive testing (i.e. PL: Proof Load)
(vii) Maximum Securing Load (MSL);
.2 Fixed securing facilities on bulkheads, web frames, stanchions, etc. and their types (e.g. pad eyes, eyebolts, etc.), where provided, including their MSL;
.3 Fixed securing facilities on decks and their types (e.g. elephant feet fittings, container fittings apertures, etc.) where provided, including their MSL;
.4 Fixed securing facilities on deckheads, where provided, listing their types and MSL; and
.5 For existing ships with non-standardized fixed securing devices, the information on MSL and location of securing points is deemed sufficient.
Note: It should be stressed that, for all existing fixed cargo securing devices, the MSL and location must be included in the Cargo Securing Manual. For new or replacement fittings, all of the information required in sub-chapter 2.1.1 above should be included.
The information required above is contained within the following Appendices at the back of the Manual:
Appendix 1A List and/or plan of the fixed cargo securing devices
Appendix 1B Certification for fixed cargo securing devices
Appendix 1C Layout and location of the fixed cargo securing devices
All new fixed cargo securing devices on new and existing ships are to be approved and certified in accordance with the current rules of the Classification Society. The certificates should include the information in 2.1.1 above, as applicable.
For securing of hazardous or dangerous cargo only certified fittings should be used.
The removal of fixed cargo securing devices and repair of the ship structure in way should be carried out under survey of the Classification Society.
Note: For existing vessels, examination of the strength of existing fixed securing arrangements and supporting structure will not be undertaken. A note will however be incorporated into the submitted Manual to the effect that existing securing arrangements which have proven satisfactory in service are not subject to examinations providing they are properly maintained and used for the purpose for which they are intended.
The following wording should be included in all cargo securing manuals for existing ships:
Existing securing arrangements which have proven satisfactory in service are not subject to examinations providing they are properly maintained and used for the purpose for which they are intended. When new and replacement securing devices are placed onboard, they should be provided with appropriate certification which should be retained with this Manual.
For existing fixed fittings where there is any doubt over the capability of existing fixed securing arrangements, including supporting structure, the fixed fitting should be Proof tested at loads equal to the maximum specified securing load + 50%. The proof loading is to be applied at both the mean and extreme angles of operation.
Notes: For new vessels, all fixed securing fittings and associated supporting structure will be appraised during the ship plan approval process. To carry out such appraisals it will be necessary for plans to include the details of the maximum securing load applicable to each fitting. The structural drawings which are normally submitted for classification approval should be developed to include any fixed securing fittings, the specified MSL (SWL), and range of operation.
The approval of new fixed cargo securing devices, including installation, materials, testing, certification, survey, attachment and ship structure in way are to be in accordance with Administration requirements and the current rules of the Classification Society.
Fixed fittings are regarded as part of the ship structure and are surveyed for damage at routine hull surveys.
Only appropriate securing points or fittings should be used for cargo securing, no other attachments shall be made to the ships structure without the Masters permission and the approval of the Classification Society.
The maximum securing load imposed by any attachment to the ship’s structure shall not exceed:
Ship’s structure MSL (kN)
Tween deck frames
Lower hold frames
Transverse bulkhead stiffeners
Deck beams or longitudinals
Deck transverses or girders
Tank top beams or longitudinals
Tank top transverses or girders
Note: The MSL should be entered in the above table for each part of the ship structure, as appropriate.
Any lashing arrangements imposing loads in excess of these limits may cause serious structural damage.
Out of plane loading on stiffening members is to be avoided.
Notes: It should be noted that the scantling of existing ship structures may not allow for additional cargo securing loads and the structure in way of fixed securing devices may require additional local stiffening.
An arrangement which should be avoided is one in which the lashing lug itself and its attaching welding are of ample strength, but the sub-structure to which the lug is welded is of much reduced strength. This situation arises when heavy lugs are attached to lightweight deck plating or bulwark plating on a ship, or to relatively thin plating forming the casing of a high-value piece of machinery.
When assessing the weld connections for D-rings or any other form of welded terminal it is important to remember that the yield strength of the weld connections will not be greater than the intrinsic yield strength of the material welded. Ordinary shipbuilding mild steel, which has a yield strength of about 235N/mm², should be generally assumed for the sub structure. If necessary, decrease the size and increase the number of the lashing plates, and reinforce the sub-structure when terminal points are required to be welded to any part of a ship’s structure.
Eye plates (lashing plates) are not to be welded to the upper side of the sheerstrake nor, in general, are they to penetrate the strength deck plating. Deck, bulwark or other plating is to be of sufficient thickness to withstand any shear forces that may be incurred in way of eye plates due to asymmetrical loading of the eye plate and such plating is to be stiffened as necessary to prevent deformation under direct eye plate loadings.
Any attachments to high tensile steel plate must be done under class survey, and in accordance with the Classification Society’s Rules.
Any welded attachments to the ships deck and bulkhead plating must be aligned to stiffeners, beams, longitudinal stiffeners or floors using an appropriate weld area for the load imposed.
Out of plane loading on eyeplates is to be avoided (i.e. at an angle which imposes a side load):


Note: Difficulties have been observed in the determination of MSL of uncertified deckrings and padeyes on existing ships. This problem is actually not new at all. A practical solution has been found and used at the Bremen Port Training Centre for more than 20 years in the training of skilled dockworkers. This institution used the simple rule of thumb:
MSL = d² x12 (kN) where d is the rod diameter of rings or eyes in cm.
The MSL obtained is considered valid for mild steel of 37 kN/cm2 tensile strength under the following conditions:
The supporting structure (deck, tanktop, frame etc.) must be of sufficient strength;
Welded seams must be of equivalent cross-section and not impaired by corrosion;
Both ends of the rod are to be fully welded. i.e. it is not applicable if open ended links or hooks are used.
Administrations or authorised bodies will generally not examine the strength of fixed securing points on existing ships when approving the Cargo Securing Manual. Therefore the proper use of the above rule of thumb will be fully within the responsibility of the Owner.

Installation of new or alternative types of fixed cargo securing devices
When new or alternative types of fixed cargo securing devices are installed, the Cargo Securing Manual should be revised accordingly and the revisions submitted to the Administration/Classification Society for approval.
The revisions should indicate, and where necessary illustrate the number, locations, type and MSL of the fixed devices used to secure the cargo, and should as a minimum contain the following information:
1. A list and/or plan of the fixed cargo securing devices, which should be supplemented with appropriate documentation for each type of device as far as practicable. The appropriate documentation (i.e. certificates) should include information as applicable regarding:
(i) Name of manufacturer
(ii) Type designation of item with simple sketch for ease of identification
(iii) Material(s)
(iv) Identification marking
(v) Strength test result or ultimate tensile strength test result
(vi) Result of non destructive testing
(vii) Maximum Securing Load (MSL);
2. Fixed securing facilities on bulkheads, web frames, stanchions, etc. and their types (e.g. pad eyes, eyebolts, etc.), where provided, including their MSL;
3. Fixed securing facilities on decks and their types (e.g. elephant feet fittings, container fittings apertures, etc.) where provided, including their MSL;
4. Fixed securing facilities on deckheads, where provided, listing their types and MSL.
The revisions, including certificates, should be retained with the Cargo Securing Manual.

The approval of new fixed cargo securing devices, including installation, materials, testing, certification, survey, attachment and ship structure in way are to be in accordance with Administration requirements and the current rules of the Classification Society.
In general, the attachment of fixed cargo securing devices should be kept clear of high stress areas. Special attention should be given to devices installed in areas where other forces (e.g. hull girder longitudinal bending) are working in conjunction with loads from the securing arrangement or the arrangement involves different material grades.
The ship structure and hatch covers in way of fixed cargo securing devices should be strengthened as necessary, in accordance with the current rules of the Classification Society.
The removal of fixed cargo securing devices and repair of the ship structure in way should be carried out under survey of the Classification Society.

2.2 Specification for portable cargo securing devices.
This sub-chapter describes the number of, and the functional and design characteristics of the portable cargo securing devices carried on board the ship, and is supplemented by suitable drawings or sketches if deemed necessary. It contains the following information as applicable:
.1 A list of the portable cargo securing devices, which should be supplemented with appropriate documentation for each type of device, as far as practicable. The appropriate documentation (i.e. certificates) should include the following information as applicable:
(i) Name of manufacturer
(ii) Type designation of item with simple sketch for ease of identification
(iii) Material(s), including minimum safe operational temperature (This is particularly important where ambient deck temperatures at or below 0oC may be encountered. Appropriate grades of steel should be used in such cases.)
(iv) Identification marking (Identification markings consist of marks using paint or stamped impressions indicating the manufacturer, serial or other similar type of identifying number of the device.)
(v) Strength test result or ultimate tensile strength test result (i.e. BL: Breaking Load)
(vi) Result of non destructive testing (i.e. PL: Proof Load)
(vii) Maximum Securing Load (MSL);
.2 Container stacking fittings, container deck securing fittings, fittings for interlocking of containers, bridge-fittings, etc., their MSL and use;
.3 Chains, wire lashings, rods, etc., their MSL and use;
.4 Tensioners (e.g. turnbuckles, chain tensioners, etc.), their MSL and use;
.5 Securing gear for cars, if appropriate, and other vehicles, their MSL and use;
.6 Trestles and jacks, etc., for vehicles (trailers) where provided, including their MSL and use;
.7 Anti-skid material (e.g. soft boards) for use with cargo units having low frictional characteristics.
Note: It should be stressed that, for all existing portable cargo securing devices, the MSL must be included in the Cargo Securing Manual. For new or replacement portable cargo securing devices, all of the information required in sub-chapter 2.2.1 above should be included.
The information required above is contained within the following Appendices at the back of the Manual:
Appendix 2A List of portable cargo securing devices
Appendix 2B Certification for portable cargo securing devices
All new portable cargo securing devices on new and existing ships are to be approved and certified in accordance with an appropriate national or international standard. The certificates should include the information in 2.2.1 above, as applicable.
For securing of hazardous or dangerous cargo only certified fittings should be used.
Notes: Computerised lists, records and controls are acceptable and if used full details together with an appropriate print-out should be included in the manual.
For lashing rods, turnbuckles, twistlocks, stackers, penguin hooks and bridge fittings the Maximum Securing Load (MSL) should not exceed 50% of the Breaking Load.

Note: Existing ships should be provided with certification for portable cargo securing devices so far as practicable. However, it is appreciated that such certification may not be available or obtainable and in such instances a note will be incorporated into the submitted manual to the effect that existing securing arrangements which have proven satisfactory in service will not be subject to examinations providing they are properly maintained and used for the purpose for which they are intended.
The following wording should be included in all cargo securing manuals for existing ships:
Existing securing arrangements which have proven satisfactory in service are not subject to examinations providing they are properly maintained and used for the purpose for which they are intended. When new and replacement securing devices are placed onboard, they should be provided with appropriate certification which should be retained with this Manual.
Notes: As stated above, it should be ensured that, when new and replacement securing devices are placed on board, they are provided with appropriate certification. These certificates should be included in the cargo securing manual as an appendix or permanently retained with the manual as a supplement.
New ships should be provided with certification for all portable cargo securing devices.
It is appreciated that loose fittings are difficult to control and may be mixed with fittings from various sources. Obligatory survey of portable fittings will not generally be pursued and inspection and replacement should be the responsibility of the operators. In so far as practicable, it should be ensured that container twist locks lock in the same direction as those already on board.
Loose fittings should be certified by some form of “Type Approval” system, though it is not considered essential that LR should be the approval authority. Certificates supplied by other Classification Societies, National Administrations, approved testing houses/laboratories, and the manufacturer of the equipment will be accepted.

Installation of new or alternative types of portable cargo securing devices
When new or alternative types of portable cargo securing devices are installed, the Cargo Securing Manual should be revised accordingly and the revisions submitted to the Administration/Classification Society for approval.
The revisions should describe the number of and the functional and design characteristics of the portable cargo securing devices used to secure the cargo, and should be supplemented by suitable drawings or sketches if deemed necessary. It should contain the following information as applicable:
1. A list of the portable cargo securing devices, supplemented with appropriate documentation for each type of device, as far as practicable. For each type of portable securing device, the appropriate documentation (i.e. certificates) should include the following information as applicable:
(i) Name of manufacturer
(ii) Type designation of item with simple sketch for ease of identification
(iii) Material(s), including minimum safe operational temperature (This is particularly important where ambient deck temperatures at or below 0oC may be encountered. Appropriate grades of steel should be used in such cases.)
(iv) Identification marking (Identification markings consist of marks using paint or stamped impressions indicating the manufacturer, serial or other similar type of identifying number of the device.)
(v) Strength test result or ultimate tensile strength test result
(vi) Result of non destructive testing (proof load test)
(vii) Maximum Securing Load (MSL);
2. Container stacking fittings, container deck securing fittings, fittings for interlocking of containers, bridge-fittings, etc., their MSL and use;
3. Chains, wire lashings, rods, etc., their MSL and use;
4. Tensioners (e.g. turnbuckles, chain tensioners, etc.), their MSL and use;
5. Securing gear for cars, if appropriate, and other vehicles, their MSL and use;
6. Trestles and jacks, etc., for vehicles (trailers) where provided, including their MSL and use;
7. Anti-skid material (e.g. soft boards) for use with cargo units having low frictional characteristics.
The revisions, including certificates, should be retained with the Cargo Securing Manual.

2.3 Inspection and maintenance schemes
This sub-chapter of the manual describes the inspection and maintenance schemes for the cargo securing devices on board the ship.
2.3.1 Regular inspections and maintenance are carried out under the responsibility of the master. Cargo securing device inspections as a minimum should include:
1 Routine visual examinations of components being utilised:
All fixed eyeplates for cargo securing are to be examined for damage, immediately after use, and any necessary repairs and testing as appropriate carried out prior to re-use. This examination should be particularly stringent following heavy weather passages.
All portable securing devices are to be thoroughly examined after use prior to their being reused, such equipment shall be kept isolated from equipment which has been inspected and is ready for use.
All portable securing devices shall be further examined and greased as necessary at 3 monthly intervals.
2 Periodic examinations/re-testing as required by the Administration. When required, the cargo securing devices concerned should be subjected to inspections by the Administration.
Any significant deformation of the ship’s structure in way of securing points is to be reported to Lloyds Register at the earliest opportunity.
Note: Fixed fittings are regarded as part of the ship structure and will be surveyed for damage at routine hull surveys.

2.3.2 This sub-chapter documents actions to inspect and maintain the ship’s cargo securing devices. Entries should be made in a record book, which should be kept with the Cargo Securing Manual. This record book should contain the following information:
1 Procedures for accepting, maintaining and repairing or rejecting cargo securing devices:
Each device should be checked for damage and wear which could affect the ability of the device to adequately and safely perform its designated function or which could lead to physical injury of persons handling devices. Devices should also be examined prior to being used for a particular purpose to determine that they are suitable for that purpose, with regard to both strength and efficacy.
Damaged or rejected items must be quarantined to ensure they can not be confused with useable equipment.
Container shoes, twistlock pockets, other securing pockets
These devices should be inspected in way of the welds connecting them to the ship’s structure (whether surface-mounted or flush-fitting) and any fractures or tearing should be gouged out and rewelded. If the underlying structure of the deck, tank top or hatch cover is deformed to such an extent that an uneven stow would result, the structure should be repaired by the most appropriate method.
The aperture of the pocket should be examined for excess wear, deformation or fractures and the dimensions checked against a standard cone or twistlock. If there is any doubt as to the security of the pocket it should be replaced.
The presence of light corrosion, not affecting the ability of the pocket to perform its function, may be accepted without remedial action.
Any scale that has formed within the aperture of the pocket should be removed and the pocket re-examined. The dimensions of the aperture should be carefully checked for satisfactory fit.
Likewise any dust and debris, previous cargo material etc., should be removed from the pocket before it is put into service.
Eye plates, D-rings, lashings lugs
These devices should be inspected in way of the welds connecting them to the ship’s structure and any fractures or tearing should be gouged out and rewelded. The structure to which the device is attached (whether deck, tank top, hatch cover, bulkhead, webframe, stanchion, stay, bulwark or deckhead) should be examined for deformation and/or fractures and if any are found the structure is to be repaired by the most appropriate method.
The material of the device should be examined for excess wear and/or fractures and if any are found the device should be replaced with one of at least the same strength. Welding of the device to the structure should be carried out by approved personnel in accordance with appropriate welding practice.
Bottle screws, rigging screws and turnbuckles
These devices should be inspected for excessive wear, deformation and/or fractures and if any are found the device should be rejected. The threaded section of the eye-bolts should be examined for damage to the screw-threads or ‘cross-threading’ and should be adequately greased and free from corrosion. The eye should be examined for excessive wear and/or fractures and, if any are found, the device should be rejected.

Wire lashings, wire rope
Wire rope to be used for lashing purposes should be examined for permanent kinks, flattening, corrosion, drying out of the fibre core and protrusion of the fibre core. Any wire found with these defects should be rejected.
Serious strength loss can occur where wire rope is kinked or used around sharp edges of cargo or the vessel. Inspection should be undertaken to ensure that wire rope products in service are without such malformation.
Any wire rope in which the strands are seriously deformed or the core is exposed should be condemned as unfit for service.
Wire ropes with broken component wires represent a hazard to both operator and cargo, as well as causing a loss of strength. If, in any length of wire of ten diameters, there are visible broken wires, amounting to more than 5% of the total number of wires comprising the rope, then that device should be withdrawn from service.
In circumstances where use has resulted in abrasion and broken wires over a length of wire greater than ten diameters, then the wire rope device should be withdrawn from use on the grounds of safety to operatives and reducing the risk of damage to cargo.
Inter-layer stackers, twist-locks, turn-buckles, lashing rods, chains, deck connections, etc.
Are all subject to deterioration or physical damage of one kind or another and should always be inspected before use. Operational structural failure of twist-lock inter-layer stackers may well result from them being weakened by rough handling at discharge ports, e.g. stevedores throwing down the twist-locks from third tier levels. Such rough handling could also cause defects in other components which may then fail under operational stress. The provision of suitable bags and boxes which can be used to collect components before lowering them to deck level helps to prevent such misuse.
Twistlocks, bridge fittings
These fittings are to be examined for defects which preclude their safe and effective use.
Any deformed or missing operating handles will result in the unit being withdrawn from service.
The operation of the locking device is to be examined and any found not to be working correctly, withdrawn from service.
The threads of tension fittings are to be periodically greased and inspection of the jaws should be made to determine their suitability for use.
The collection and proper stowage of unwanted equipment will go some way to ensuring safe and long service of the items. Provision for collecting and transferring devices safely will help to ensure their long life and serviceability.
Chain lashings and tensioning levers
Rings and links are to be examined for distortion. Bent and twisted links are unacceptable for service and must be rejected.
The chain, when hanging free must not contain locked links (evidence of stretching and overload).
The jaws of hooks are to be checked for distortion at their opening using the original equipment specifications to determine distortion levels.
The pads of elephant foot fittings are to be examined for cracking, deformation or wear and withdrawn from service if such faults are found.
Wear in chain links greater than 12.5% of new material diameter in any positon on the link is cause for withdrawal from service.
The chain must be examined for severe abrasion and scoring of individual links which would render the device unsuitable for use.
Webbing Devices
Webbing securing devices comprise of two elements, the woven fibre webbing and the metal ratchet or tensioning device. Inspection must include a visual inspection of the material to ensure that no cuts or serious abrasions exist which would reduce the strength of the webbing. Where such cuts or abrasions exist the device should be removed from service. Minor chafing leading to a furry appearance of the webbing material has only a limited detrimental effect and use in service is acceptable. The inspection is to identify abrasion of a serious nature which affects several strands in a close area or cuts through the fibres which reduces the integrity of the webbing.
The tensioning device should be examined for any damage and the unit tested for correct operation.
Examine slings for defects prior to use and ensure that their identification and specification are correct. Never use a sling or lashing which is defective or unidentified.
Webbing seriously impregnated with oils or other similar material should be removed from service to prevent damage to cargo, and to guard against the potentially damaging effect on the webbing material of such contamination.
Solutions of acids or alkalis which are harmless may become sufficiently concentrated by evaporation to cause damage. Contaminated slings should be taken out of service as soon as possible, soaked in cold fresh water and then allowed to dry naturally. Under no circumstances should slings be heated or force dried.
Trailer horses
These items constructed from steel section should be examined periodically to ensure that wheels and springs are operable and that no part of the structure is damaged.
Lubrication should be carried out as necessary.
An inspection of the structural welds should be made and any cracks, tears, or damage repaired using appropriate methods.
Trailer chocks, extension levers
A visual inspection should be made to ensure the items remain serviceable. In general such items are not loaded, but nevertheless damaged items should be repaired or replaced.
Note: Any further requirements pertinent to the examination and maintenance of the fixed and portable securing devices provided on board should be included in this section, including any manufacturers requirements.

2 Record of inspections
All examinations are to be entered into a record book, which forms Appendix 3 to this manual.
Note: The record book should contain the following information as a minimum:
(i) Date of examination;
(ii) Signature of person conducting examination;
(iii) Name and identification of items examined;
(iv) Results of examination/inspection and maintenance/repair undertaken, if any.

2.3.3 This sub-chapter of the Manual contains information for the Master regarding inspections and adjustments of securing arrangements during the voyage.
1 The integrity of the securing arrangements should be maintained throughout the voyage:
Particular attention should be paid to the need for tight lashings, grips and clips to prevent weakening through chafing. Timber cradles, bedding and shoring should be checked, in so far as practicable and accessible.
Lashings should be regularly checked and re-tightened.
Particular attention should be paid to lashings which may become slack due to the cargo deforming or compacting during the voyage. Lashings may also become slack when cargoes are loaded and secured in conditions of low ambient temperature and the vessel then proceeds to areas of significantly higher ambient temperature. Adjustment of securing devices include re-tightening of lashings by use of turnbuckles, if fitted, otherwise by remaking the lashing. If necessary additional lashings should be fitted.
Greasing the thread of clips and turnbuckles increases working life and prevents corrosion.
2 Actions which may be taken in heavy weather:
General
The purpose of this section is not to usurp the responsibilities of the master, but rather to offer some advice on how stresses induced by excessive accelerations caused by bad weather conditions could be avoided.
Excessive accelerations
Measures to avoid excessive accelerations are:
1 alteration of course or speed, or a combination of both;
2 heaving to;
3 early avoidance of areas of adverse weather and sea conditions; and
4 timely ballasting or deballasting to improve the behaviour of the ship, taking into account the actual stability conditions (see also “Actions which may be taken once cargo has shifted” below)
Voyage planning
One way of reducing excessive accelerations is for the master, as far as possible and practicable, to plan the voyage of the ship carefully so as to avoid areas with severe weather and sea conditions. The master should always consult the latest available weather information.
Where the intended deck cargo consists of heavy individual units, e.g. vehicles, trailers, rail cars and large boxes, a cautionary statement should be included in the Stability Information Booklet advising the master of the necessity to secure such cargoes in the most effective and efficient manner in order to prevent any movement of the deck cargo when the ship is in a seaway which would put the ship at risk.

When severe weather conditions (i.e. sea state conditions equal to or worse than those associated with Beaufort Scale 6) are likely to be experienced in service the following principles should be observed in the design of the deck cargo securing arrangements:
1 Suitable physical means (e.g. cross bracing at sides and ends using chain lashings fitted with rigging-screws) to prevent the cargo, especially wheeled vehicles, from sliding or tipping should be provided.
2 Where practicable on vehicles having leaf type springs the total weight carried by the springs should be transferred from the axles on to deck jacks.
3 When cargo is carried on vehicles or trailers it should be securely attached to the chassis of the vehicle/trailer. The means for securing the cargo should include cross bracing at the ends to prevent tipping when subject to racking action.
4 Lashings used to secure cargo or vehicles should have a breaking load of at least 3 times the design load, the design load being the total weight of the cargo or cargo plus vehicle subjected to acceleration of:
0.7 ‘g’ athwartships,
0.3 ‘g’ longitudinally,
relative to the principal axis of the ship.
Note: In the case of cellular container ships in liner trades, voyage and stowage plans may be prepared ashore and management must ensure plans do not pose a threat to the ships stability etc..
3 Actions which may be taken once cargo has shifted:
The following actions may be considered:
1 alterations of course to reduce accelerations;
2 reductions of speed to reduce accelerations and vibration;
3 monitoring the integrity of the ship;
4 restowing or resecuring the cargo and, where possible, increasing the friction; and
5 diversion of route in order to seek shelter or improved weather and sea conditions
Tank ballasting or deballasting operations should be considered only if the ship has adequate stability.
Note: Further details regarding the maintenance of the lashings during the voyage as pertinent to the ship, cargo and lashing arrangements in use should be included in this sub-chapter.

2.3.4 Computerised maintenance procedures may be referred to in this sub-chapter.
Notes: If applicable, computerised maintenance procedures based on company planned maintenance schedules may be incorporated into this section of the Manual.
Reference may also be made to computerised maintenance procedures and details/print-outs included in the Manual.

Chapter 3
Stowage and securing of non-standardized and semi-standardized cargo
3.1 Handling and safety instructions
This sub-chapter should contain instructions on the proper handling of the securing devices and safety instructions related to handling of securing devices and to securing and unsecuring of units by ship or shore personnel.
Notes: Detailed instructions regarding the above must be included in the manual for all securing devices used on board. Extracts taken from manufacturers guidance literature may be inserted into the manual for this purpose, but references to such literature or other sources of information is not sufficient. For examples, see Appendix 2C at the back of the Manual.
Guidance should be included to ensure that securing equipment of the appropriate type and load capacity is used for the cargo unit in question, and that equipment with differing operational methods should not be mixed where this could give rise to confusion and improper application.
Extracts should also be included as appropriate from the Code of Safe Working Practices for Merchant Seamen, or other appropriate guide.
The carriage of livestock in cargo units should also be considered, if appropriate.
General principles of cargo securing:
All cargoes should be stowed and secured in such a way that the ship and persons on board are not put at risk.
The safe stowage and securing of cargoes depends on proper planning, execution and supervision.
Personnel commissioned to tasks of cargo stowage and securing should be properly qualified and experienced.
Personnel planning and supervising the stowage and securing of cargo should have a sound practical knowledge of the application and content of this Cargo Securing Manual.
In all cases, improper stowage and securing of cargo will be potentially hazardous to the securing of other cargoes and to the ship itself.
Decisions taken for measures of stowage and securing cargo should be based on the most severe weather conditions which may be expected by experience for the intended voyage.
Ship-handling decisions taken by the master, especially in bad weather conditions, should take into account the type and stowage position of the cargo and the securing arrangements.

Behaviour of cargoes
Some cargoes have a tendency to deform or to compact themselves during the voyage, which will result in a slackening of their securing gear. The correct protection and securing should be provided for this type of cargo.
Cargoes with low friction coefficients, when stowed without proper friction-increasing devices such as dunnage, soft boards, rubber mats, etc., are difficult to secure unless tightly stowed across the ship.

Equipment
The ship’s cargo securing equipment should be:
1 available in sufficient quantity;
2 suitable for its intended purpose, taking into account the recommendations of this Cargo Securing Manual;
3 of adequate strength;
4 easy to use; and
5 well maintained
6 there should be a sufficient quantity of reserve cargo securing gear on board the ship.

Special cargo transport units
The shipowner and the ship operator should, when necessary, make use of relevant expertise when considering the shipment of a cargo with unusual characteristics which may require special attention to be given to its location on board vis-à-vis the structural strength of the ship, its stowage and securing, and the weather conditions which may be expected during the intended voyage.

Cargo information
Prior to shipment the shipper should provide all necessary information about the cargo to enable the shipowner or ship operator to ensure that:
1 the different commodities to be carried are compatible with each other or suitably separated;
2 the cargo is suitable for the ship;
3 the ship is suitable for the cargo; and
4 the cargo can be safely stowed and secured on board the ship and transported under all expected conditions during the intended voyage.

The master should be provided with adequate information regarding the cargo to be carried so that its stowage may be properly planned for handling and transport.

Suitability of cargo for transport
Cargo carried in containers, road vehicles, shipborne barges, railway wagons and other transport units should be packed and secured within these units so as to prevent, throughout the voyage, damage or hazard to the ship, to the persons on board and to the marine environment.

Cargo distribution
It is of utmost importance that the master takes great care in planning and supervising the stowage and securing of cargoes in order to prevent cargo sliding, tipping, racking, collapsing, etc.

The cargo should be distributed so as to ensure that the stability of the ship throughout the entire voyage remains within acceptable limits so that the hazards of excessive accelerations are reduced as far as practicable.

Cargo distribution should be such that the structural strength of the ship is not adversely affected.
Cargo securing arrangements
Particular care should be taken to distribute forces as evenly as practicable between the cargo securing devices. If this is not feasible, the arrangements should be upgraded accordingly.

If, due to the complex structure of a securing arrangement or other circumstances, the person in charge is unable to assess the suitability of the arrangement from experience and knowledge of good seamanship, the arrangement should be verified by using an acceptable calculation method.

The cargo securing gear should be adapted to the quantity and properties of the cargo to be carried and, when required, additional gear should be provided.

Lashings should be kept as short as possible. Long lashings are difficult to tighten and difficult to keep taut.

Residual strength after wear and tear
Cargo securing arrangements and equipment should have sufficient residual strength to allow for normal wear and tear during their lifetime.

Friction forces
Where friction between the cargo and the ship’s deck or structure or between cargo transport units is insufficient to avoid the risk of sliding, suitable material such as soft boards or dunnage should be used to increase friction. (See paragraph 7.2.1 of the CSS Code).

Shipboard supervision
The principal means of preventing the improper stowage and securing of cargoes is through proper supervision of the loading operation and inspections of the stow.

As far as practicable, cargo spaces should be regularly inspected throughout the voyage to ensure that the cargo, vehicles and cargo transport units remain safely secured.

Entering enclosed spaces
The atmosphere in any enclosed space may be incapable of supporting human life through lack of oxygen or it may contain flammable or toxic gases. The master should ensure that it is safe to enter any enclosed space.

General elements to be considered by the master
Having evaluated the risk of cargo-shifting, taking into account the criteria for estimating the risk of cargo shifting the master should ensure, prior to loading of any cargo, cargo transport unit or vehicle that:
1 the deck area for their stowage is, as far as practicable, clean, dry and free from oil and grease;
2 the cargo, cargo transport unit or vehicle appears to be in suitable condition for transport, and can be effectively secured;
3 all necessary cargo securing equipment is on board and in good working condition; and
4 cargo in or on cargo transport units and vehicles is, to the extent practicable, properly stowed and secured on to the unit or vehicle.

Dangerous cargoes
If the ship is certified for the carriage of dangerous goods, reference should be made to the IMDG Code for information on the classes of dangerous goods to be loaded, their handling, stowage, securing and carriage. Reference should also be made to MSC/Circ. 675 “Recommendations on the Safe Transport of Dangerous Cargoes and Related Activities in Port Areas”.
For the securing of hazardous or dangerous cargoes, only certified fittings should be used.
Cargo stowage and securing declaration
Where there is reason to suspect that a container or vehicle into which dangerous goods have been packed or loaded is not in compliance with the provisions of SOLAS 1974, Chapter VII, Part A, Regulation 5.2 or 5.3, including 1998 amendments, or with the provisions of the General Introduction to the 1994 IMDG Code, section 12 or 17, as appropriate, or where a container packing certificate/vehicle packing declaration is not available, the unit should not be accepted for shipment.

Where practicable and feasible, road vehicles should be provided with a cargo stowage and securing declaration, stating that the cargo on the road vehicle has been properly stowed and secured for the intended sea voyage, taking into account the IMO/ILO Guidelines for Packing Cargo in Freight Containers or Vehicles. The vehicle packing declaration, recommended by the IMDG Code may be acceptable for this purpose.

Causes of cargo loss
Some of the most common causes of cargo loss, which should be given careful consideration when securing cargoes, are as follows:

1 Severe adverse weather.
2 Insufficient or ineffective use of dunnage.
3 Lashings inadequate in number or strength.
4 Port and starboard or forward and aft lashings ill-balanced.
5 Wire attachment eyes or loops badly formed.
6 Incorrect use of bulldog grips.
7 Lack of strength continuity as between wire, attachment eyes, chain, turnbuckles, lashing webbing, shackles and fixed point terminations.
8 Lashings secured around sharp or unprotected edges.
9 Failure to appreciate the forces generated on a sea-going vessel.
10 Failure to provide sufficient personnel or time to effectively complete the work before sailing.

3.1.1 Instructions on the proper handling of the securing devices
Portable securing equipment

The handling of all portable cargo securing devices is to be in accordance with this Cargo Securing Manual and any manufacturers instructions which are included in Appendix 2C at the back of the Manual.

Particular care should be taken to avoid impact damage to devices with moving parts, operating screwthreads or any other feature which, if damaged, could result in the device either not operating at all, or operating in such a manner that the securing of the cargo unit cannot be ensured.

Suitable precautions should be taken to prevent chains, wire ropes, fibre ropes and webbing/slings from being damaged by the sharp edges of cargo units. This may be achieved by the use of suitable packing or chafing pieces.

The portable securing equipment provided on board should be utilised in accordance with the following guidelines, as applicable:

1 Ropes

1.1 General provisions

All ropes, whether natural, synthetic or wire, should be of sound material, good construction and adequate strength for the service required. 4

Before use, all ropes should be inspected and confirmed adequate for the intended working load. 4

All ropes used for load bearing purposes should be periodically inspected by a competent person. 4

When any rope has been lengthened, altered or repaired, it should be examined and tested as necessary before it is used again. 4

All ropes should be maintained in good order: 4

(a) When not in use they should be stowed under cover in clean, dry and well ventilated places. 4
(b) Ropes should not be exposed to excessive heat or harmful chemicals. 4

Care should be taken to avoid damaging or weakening a rope through: 4

(a) Excessive stress and strain. 4
(b) Rubbing or chafing against sharp objects. 4
(c) Passing it through too small a sheave or block. 4

Care should be taken to avoid the formation of a kink in any rope under strain. 4

Care should be taken in withdrawing rope from a new coil. For stranded rope, this should be done from the inside of a coil, taking it counter-clockwise for a rope with right hand lay in order to retain the twist. 4

Kinks should always be taken out by correct coiling (a right hand coiling for a right hand rope). 4

Any rope, whether natural, synthetic or wire, and of any construction, should not be put under a load suddenly or taken up with a jerk, since such action may overload it. 4

Where thimbles are required for eye splices on ropes, they should be of suitable size. 4

Rope ends and splices should be properly seized with yarn or other suitable means. 4

1.2 Wire ropes

It is recommended that for efficient lashing purposes wire ropes should be round-stranded, flexible and not so great in diameter as to make their use cumbersome. The most common of such general purpose wires is 16mm diameter (2” circumference) of 6 x 12 construction galvanized round-strand with 7 fibre cores having a certificated minimum breaking load of 7.74 tonnef (tonnes force). This is the least expensive wire for its size, will turn easily around thimbles and lashing points, can be spliced or bulldog gripped without difficulty and is easily handled.2

Other wires of different construction and of varying sizes or strengths may be needed for particular lashing purposes and the certificated minimum breaking load should always be verified before taking such wires into use. 2

In some instances wires intended for use as lashings are supplied pre-cut to precise length and with eyes or attachment devices already formed in one or both ends. Such purpose made items are usually sold with certificates stating the test load and minimum break load applicable. 2

For general lashing purposes, the wire is usually supplied in coils and must be cut to length aboard the ship with the eyes and attachment devices formed and fitted on site as required.1

The eye may be formed by splicing the strands of the wire back into the lay of the standing part, around a thimble. There are several methods of achieving this result. All are time consuming and, even if effected with the exercise of great skill and care, they all reduce the strength of the wire in the tucked area to about 80% of its nominal breaking load. In instances where the eyes are formed with less skill and care, the strands may pull or slip at loads of no more than 50% of the breaking load of the wire. 1

For this reason bulldog grips, and their close cousin Crosby clips, were invented, the use of which allows eyes to be formed quickly and securely in wire ropes by relatively unskilled persons, providing a few simple rules are followed: 1

Bulldog grip terminations:

1 For all sizes of wire from 8mm to 19mm diameter, use not less than three grips at each eye. For wires of 20mm to 32mm diameter, use not less than four grips per eye. For wires of 33mm to 38mm diameter, use not less than five grips at each eye and upwards. Using less numbers of grips than here recommended can seriously impair the holding effectiveness of the eye. 2

The following table provides a quick reference: 1

Diameter of Wire Rope (mm) Wire Rope Grips
Up to and including 19
Over 19, up to and including 32
Over 32, up to and including 38
Over 38, up to and including 44
Over 44, up to and including 56 3
4
5
6
7

2 Bulldog grips have a grooved surface in the bridge piece which is suitable for a standard wire rope of right-hand lay having six strands. 2 Crosby grips have a smooth surface in the bridge piece. 1 The grips should not be used with ropes of left-hand lay or different construction. 2

3 The size of the wire grips must match the diameter of the wire rope.

4 Before cutting the wire to length, whip or securely tape both sides of the cutting point. The two cut ends will then not tend to unlay, and a good, firm eye can be made without wasting material or time. 1

5 The first grip must be close up to the thimble or at the neck of the eye if a thimble is not used and the other grips must be spaced approximately six rope diameters apart, i.e. 96mm (3¾”) apart on a 16mm diameter wire; 108mm (4¼”) apart on a 18mm diameter wire, for instance. 1

6 The grips must all face in the same direction and must be fitted with the saddle (or bridge) applied to the working/hauling part of the rope; the U-bolt (or bow) must be applied on the tail/dead-end of the rope. 1
Applying the grips in reduced numbers and in other directions can seriously impair the holding effectiveness of the eye. 1





















7 Threads of wire grips must be greased and nuts tightened until the dead end of the wire rope is visibly dented. Without greasing a sufficient tightening will be impossible.

8 Ideally, all nuts should be tightened using a torque-wrench so as to give tightening values in accordance with the manufacturers’ instructions. This is feasible in covered workshop conditions but, on an exposed deck in the dark and rain of a winter’s night, it is sufficient to take all nuts hard-up with a ring spanner. Thereafter, all eye terminations should be checked after one or two loadings and the nuts hardened-up again if necessary. This latter practice should never be neglected. The very nature of the grips and the wire means that one is compressing the other; the flattening effect of that compression may continue to some very slight degree after the nuts have been first applied firmly. 1

It is further recommended that wire rope grips be used as follows:

(a) Use of Wire Rope Grip Terminations.

1 An alternative method of terminating the wire rope should always be sought. There are few, if any, situations where other methods of forming eyes or terminating wire ropes cannot be used, e.g. ferrule secured, wedge sockets etc.

2 Where the use of wire rope grips cannot be avoided, use only DIN 1142 grips in conjunction with heart shaped thimbles. A lower grade DIN standard grip exists, care must therefore be taken to ensure only DIN 1142 grips are specified and used.

3 Do not use galvanised grips or galvanised wire rope; other plated finishes are acceptable.

4 Where possible use ordinary lay IWRC preformed ropes; avoid Lang’s Lay.

5 Always serve the tail end of the rope with soft wire. PVC tape and other means of binding the tail allow the rope to unlay.

6 Follow the DIN 1142 recommendations with regard to the number of grips and torque values, e.g. in the case of 16mm diameter this is 4 grips with nuts torqued to 49Nm (36 lbf.ft).

7 Grease all threads and nut bearing surfaces before fitting.

8 Space the grips at centres of at least 6 times the diameter of the rope placing the first grip as close to the thimble as possible. The saddle of the grip should be in contact with the live part of the rope and the clamp bolt should sit on the free side of the rope.

9 Tighten the nuts in small increments alternating from nut to nut until the required torque is achieved. A record of the torque setting should be made for reference purposes.

10 Allow the rope and eye to settle for a period prior to service, overnight seems reasonable. Retorque to the original setting once the service load is on the rope. The nuts must then be retorqued after (i) 24 hours (ii) 7 days (iii) 1 month and (iv) at 6 monthly intervals thereafter. A record of each retorquing should be kept with the relevant certificates.

(b) Existing Assemblies which Utilise Grips

1 The overall condition of the termination should be checked to ensure the correct number of grips have been used and that they are correctly fitted and spaced. Examine the rope for broken wire paying particular attention to the area adjacent to the grips and ensure the free end of the tail is correctly served and maintains its shape and size.

2 Look for any visual signs of movement of the rope through the grips, i.e. slip. Check and if necessary reset the torque of all nuts. In this respect look for evidence of periodic retorquing by reference to records.

3 Users should be advised that the use of wire rope grips must be given careful consideration. Advise the user of alternative methods of terminating the rope which are suitable for the particular application. Where the circumstances are such that no alternative is possible, advise the user of the recommendation that only grips to DIN 1142 should be used.

The expected Maximum Securing Load (MSL) of a conventional wire lashing will only be obtained if these principles are observed. A major source of failure of conventional wire lashings is insufficient number of grips and insufficient tightening of grips.

If properly made with the recommended number of grips, correctly spaced and tightened and all the grips placed with their bridges on the long part of the rope and the U-bolts bearing on the short or tail end of the rope, such a termination would be expected to hold at least 80% of the minimum breaking load of the rope.

This applies to all ropes of six strand construction when thimbles are used. When soft eyes are involved, the termination should be considered safe at 70% of the minimum breaking load of the rope. 2

Wire rope covered with plastic sheathing should not be used for making up eyes in this way due to the greater likelihood of slipping.

The practice of using bulldog grips to join two ends of wire rope together to form a single loop is to be avoided, and is not approved by the manufacturers of either wire rope or bulldog grips. This includes the formation of double runs, single grommets or continuous loops. It is appreciated that circumstances may demand such an arrangement, in which case the grommets or continuous loops should be formed of not less than two full turns of wire and a minimum of six grips should be used: three consecutively in one direction and three consecutively in the other direction. Where wires of greater than 16mm diameter are utilized, it may be wise to apply a greater number of grips.

Doubling the wire rope does not normally produce a doubling of the Maximum Securing Load (MSL). This is due to the loss of strength of the wire where it bends tightly around attachments (e.g. securing points on cargo units and securing devices). However, the MSL will be doubled if the outer bend radius is at least three times the wire diameter.

Eyes and similar terminal ends in wire lashings should never be formed by the use of round turns and half hitches. Experience shows that initial slackness is seldom taken up sufficiently and that, even where it is taken up initially, the turns and hitches tend to slip and create sharp nips leading to failure of the wire at loads well below those to be expected for eyes properly formed by the use of bulldog grips. 2

When attaching wires to lashing terminals on the ships structure or the cargo unit itself, every means should be taken to avoid hard edges, rough chaffing points, and sharp nips at the eye. Even where thimbles are used, the attachment of the eyes of the wire to lashing terminals may best be accomplished by using shackles of the appropriate size and break load. The holding effectiveness of a wire with a minimum breaking load of 7.74 tonnes and with an eye of reliable strength of 5.5 tonnes is greatly reduced if the attachment to the lashing terminal is made by the use of a 3 tonne breaking load shackle. 2

When using wire rope of 12mm diameter or less, turnsticks (Spanish windlasses) may be used. They should be secured to prevent reverse turning after tightening the lashing.

No wire rope should be accepted on board unless it is accompanied by a certificate stating that it has been made to a recognised national or international standard and which gives details of its construction, safe working load and minimum breaking strain. 4

Wire rope should always be handled with great care. Gloves should be used to protect hands against injury from wire ropes. However, when the rope is under stress or is being paid out, there is a danger that gloves may catch and cause severance of the hand or fingers. If gloves are not worn because of this concern, care should be taken to avoid hand injuries from broken or frayed strands 4 (“meat hooks”).

All wire ropes should be treated at regular intervals with suitable lubricants free from acid or alkali and, if possible, of a type recommended by the manufacturer. 4 These should be thoroughly applied so as to prevent internal corrosion as well as corrosion on the outside. The ropes should never be allowed to dry out. 3

They should be regularly inspected for loose or broken strands or internal damage. Special attention should be paid to the condition of eye splices. 4

Wire ropes should be stored on reels of suitable diameter. 4

When a wire rope normally stored on reels is required for use, it should be taken from the reel and flaked on the deck in a safe manner and inspected thoroughly for corrosion, damage, etc., and for the expiry of shelf-life which may have been recommended by the manufacturer. 4

A wire rope should not be used if: 4

(a) It shows signs of corrosion. 4
(b) There is a tendency towards separation of the strands or wires. 4
(c) Excessive wear is indicated by flats appearing on the individual wires. 4
(d) There is excessive reduction in the measured diameter. 4
(e) The number of broken wires in any length of 10 diameters exceeds 5 per cent of the total number of wires in the rope. 4
(f) Its statutory life or service life as recommended by the manufacturer has expired, although the wire may outwardly look good. 4
(g) After failing any tests. 4

1.3 Fibre ropes

Fibre ropes of up to 24mm in diameter are handy to use but are more likely to be found on cargoes which are stowed below decks. The use of fibre ropes for weather deck cargoes should be restricted to light loads of limited volume in areas which are partly sheltered by the ships structure. The reason for this is that, where such ropes are used on deck, difficulty is likely to be encountered in maintaining the tautness of the lashings when they are subjected to load stresses and the effects of wetting and drying out in exposed situations. 2

The use of turnbuckles should be avoided; they may quite easily overload the rope lashing and create the very failure conditions which they are designed to avoid. 2

The tautening of rope lashings is best achieved by the use of bowsing ropes and frappings. 2

Many types of rope of both man-made and natural fibre are available, each with different properties and with different resistance to contamination by substances in use about the ship which may seriously weaken the rope. Seafarers should therefore be aware of the general limitations of the different types of rope and the following table is set out as a guide on the resistance of the main rope types to chemical attack. 3

Resistance to chemicals of rope made of:
Substance Manila or
Sisal Polyamide
(nylon) Polyester Polypropylene
Sulphuric (battery) acid None Poor Good V Good
Hydrochloric acid None Poor Good V Good
Typical rust remover Poor Fair Good V Good
Caustic soda None Good Fair V Good
Liquid bleach None Good V Good V Good
Creosote, crude oil Fair None Good V Good
Phenols, crude tar Good Fair Good Good
Diesel oil Good Good Good Good
Synthetic detergents Poor Good Good Good
Chlorinated solvents,
e.g. trichloroethylene
(used in some paint and varnish removers) Poor Fair Good Poor
Other organic solvents Good Good Good Good

The above table is indicative only of the possible extent of deterioration of rope; in practice, much depends upon the precise formulation of the material, the amount of contamination the rope receives and the length of time and the temperature at which it is exposed to the contamination. In some cases, damage may not be apparent even on close inspection. 3

A natural fibre rope that has been, or is suspected of having been, in contact with any acid, alkali or any other substance known to be detrimental to rope fibre should be taken out of service and destroyed. 4

Any part of a rope composed of man-made fibres, which has come into contact with such organic solvents as paint stripper or paint, should be discarded. 4

Ropes should be stored away from heat and sunlight, and in a separate compartment from containers of chemicals, detergents, rust removers, paint strippers or other substances capable of damaging them. 3

Polypropylene ropes, which have the best all round resistance to attack by harmful substances, are generally preferred but, unless they are of a type resistant to actinic degradation, such as those approved for life saving appliances, they should not be exposed to strong sunlight for long periods. 3

Rope of man-made material stretches under load to an extent which varies according to the material. Polyamide rope stretches the most. 3

Nylon fibre absorbs between 8% and 9% of water; the overall effect, when under load, is to reduce its effective strength by about 15%. Premature failure of nylon rope occurs under limited cyclic loading up to 70% of its effective strength. Therefore nylon rope is not recommended for deck cargo securing purposes. 2

Composite rope, frequently referred to as “lashing rope”, is made up of wire fibres and sisal or polypropylene fibres which are interwoven, thus adding some of the strength of steel to the flexibility of sisal and polypropylene. It is most frequently supplied in coils of 10mm diameter and should be considered as having a breaking strength of about 0.8 tonnes for sisal based and 1.8 tonnes for polypropylene based ropes. These figures refer to new material and not to rope which has been in use for any length of time. 2

At regular intervals and always after any cutting or splicing, fibre ropes should be examined for abrasions, broken fibres, cuts, fraying, displacement of the yarns, discolouration and other defects. 4

Rope should be inspected internally and externally before use for signs of deterioration, undue wear or damage. A high degree of powdering between strands of man-made fibre ropes indicates hard wear and impaired strength; the internal wear will be greater with ropes that stretch. Some ropes, for example polyamide, become stiff and hard when overworked. 3

Man-made fibre ropes should be replaced when worn or damaged and, in any case, as required by the competent authority. 4

Contact with grit or sand or dragging over rough surfaces may damage rope and should be avoided. 4

If a man-made rope has been subjected to a severe shock, it should be carefully examined. 4

A natural fibre rope that has become wet should be allowed to dry naturally. 4

Mildew does not attack man-made fibre ropes but moulds can form on them. This will not affect their strength. 3

Man-made fibre ropes have advantages over natural fibre ropes in terms of strength, durability and resistance to rot, etc.. However, wear, damage and excessive exposure to sunlight can greatly diminish the strength of man-made ropes which should therefore be handled with care. 4

The following features should be taken into account when man-made ropes are used: 4

(a) Owing to the ability of man-made fibre ropes to stretch there may be considerable whiplash effect if the rope breaks. 4
(b) There is generally no audible warning prior to a rope breaking. 4
(c) Some ropes have a low melting point and have a tendency to melt or fuse. 4





In using ropes of man-made fibres, seafarers should: 4

(a) Avoid practices under which the special characteristics of such ropes could pose a hazard. 4
(b) Be aware of the whiplash effects of a breakage in ropes of man-made fibre resulting from their added elasticity and lack of warning signs prior to breakage. 4
(c) Avoid situations by which friction can heat the strands of the rope and produce a partial melting or stickiness in use, as for example excessive angle around or rubbing against or across a wire rope or hatch coaming. 4
(d) Avoid gripping any rope that has become heated by friction. 4
(e) Avoid allowing ropes to run freely through the hands. 4
(f) Ensure that such ropes are not unduly exposed to injurious sunlight or harmful chemicals. 4

An eye or rope splice in a rope of natural fibre should have not less than three tucks. The tail of each tuck should be whipped in a suitable manner. 4

The method of making eye splices in ropes of man-made fibres should be chosen according to the material of the rope and, in general, the following methods should be used: 3

(a) Polyamide (nylon) and polyester fibre ropes need four full tucks in the splice each with the completed strands of the rope followed by two tapered tucks for which the strands are halved and quartered for one tuck each respectively. The length of the splicing tail protruding from the finished splice should be equal to at least three rope diameters. The portions of the splice containing the tucks with reduced number of filaments should be securely wrapped with adhesive tape or other suitable material. 3
(b) Polypropylene ropes should have at least three but not more than four full tucks in the splice. The protruding spliced tails should be equal to three rope diameters at least. 3
(c) Polyethylene ropes should have four full tucks in the splice with protruding tails of three rope diameters at least. 3

The method of making eye or loop splices in ropes of man-made fibre should accord strictly with the manufacturer’s instructions for the particular material of which the rope is made. 4

Mechanical fastenings should not be used in lieu of splices on man-made fibre ropes because strands may be damaged during application of the mechanical fastening and the grip of the fastenings may be much affected by slight unavoidable fluctuations in the diameter of strands. 3

All the jointing and attachment knots traditionally used for natural fibres may be employed with man-made fibre ropes. However, it must be borne in mind that with polyethylene, and to some extent, polypropylene, knots can slip under load and the use of ‘stopper knots’ is advocated. Such slippage is due to the waxy nature of the rope polymer, and not to the rope construction employed. 1

Similarly, knots, once tied and loaded, are frequently difficult, if not impossible, to untie. This difficulty arises from the extension of the rope under load which locks the knot once the load is removed, and is quite different in mechanism from the swelling of the natural fibres when wet which produces a similar effect. 1

It must be realised that both knotting and splicing weaken rope by an amount dependent on the termination chosen. However, a rope containing both knots and splices, or a succession of differrent knots, will not be weakened cumulatively as a result. It will be weakened by the amount caused by the least efficient knot or splice used. 1

The following table shows the effect of commonly encountered knots on the strength of ropes of the various fibres. The results were established from numerous tests on new ropes in the size range 6 to 14mm diameter. Some reduction in these values might be expected from ropes larger in circumference or in a worn condition and accordingly the information must be regarded as being of an advisory nature. 1

Material Nylon Polyester Polypropylene Sisal
Fibrefilm Staple
Reef Knot 37 45 44 43 53
Overhand Knot 40 43 47 39 50
Bow-Line 58 56 57 64 63
Sheet Bend 53 49 49 41 50
Double Sheet Bend 57 42 54 45 50
Clove Hitch 55 52 65 51 81
Eye-Splice 81 89 86 86 90
Timber Hitch 55 65 61 57 94
Double Figure-of-Eight 74 Not tested Not tested

The figures in the above table represent percentage of Nominal Breaking Load (NBL) remaining. Hence, to find the percentage weakening, subtract the relevant number from 100. For example: By how much is a sisal rope weakened by using a reef knot? Answer: 100 - 53 = 47% NBL reduction. 1

2 Chain Lashings

The use of chain alone for the securing of general deck cargoes is not widespread. Where chain lashings are used they tend to be supplied in precise lengths already fitted with terminal points and tightening devices. The advantage of using chain resides in the fact that under the normal load for which the chain is designed it will not stretch. Thus, if all chain lashings are set tight before the voyage and the cargo neither settles nor moves, nothing should cause the chain to lose its tautness. Hence it is widely used in the securing of freight containers and vehicle trailers. 2

In general, chain for non-specific uses is awkward to handle, tiresome to rig, difficult to cut to length, and does not render easily. For general purposes it is most effectively used in relatively short lengths in conjunction with or as a part of lashings otherwise composed of wire or webbing. 2

Chain lashings normally consist of a length of chain which can be adjusted in length using a lever tensioner or turnbuckle.

If the chain is fitted with hooks at the ends, they should be attached to rings or other suitable fittings such that inadvertent release is avoided.

Hooks should not be used in recessed star fittings where they can impose excessive point loadings on both the hook and the fixed device.

Hooks should not be attached to unapproved points, such as apertures in longitudinal deckhead stringers, webs of beams and other ships members.

The angle to the deck, or other attachment point, of chain lashings, both in the vertical and horizontal planes must be within the working range of the fixed securing device, and less than 45° is advisable wherever possible. Where it is not possible, consideration must be given to the use of alternative or additional lashings.

Chain lever tensioners should be used as described below, unless otherwise instructed by the manufacturer.

Figure 1

For continuous take up and tightening, proceed as shown in Figure 1, and then as follows.

Step 3: Ensure chain is tensioned as much as possible.
Step 4: Loosen lever handle chain and hook lever adjustment hook in the appropriate link.
Step 5: Remove hook tip of lever from earlier position and take up slack in chain.
Step 6: Repeat the above steps, moving the lever adjustment hook to the next link along the chain until the required tension is achieved.
Step 7: When the required tension is achieved, secure the lever handle chain back to the main lashing chain, as in Step 2.

Care should be exercised when undertaking this operation that loose bights of chain are not trapped, and that the tension within the device does not recoil causing injury or damage. The device should be placed such that individual chain links are not kinked or twisted.

Extension levers are sometimes provided to assist operatives in tensioning chain lashing devices, providing greater purchase to the lever in order to achieve satisfactory tension within the device. Do not use tubes over the lever to increase still further the purchase or mechanical advantage on the tension lever.

Care should also be taken if it is necessary to make adjustments to chain lashings when the vessel is in a seaway.

3 Webbing

The use of webbing slings and webbing lashings for cargo securing purposes has steadily increased over the past few years2, and they are now used extensively for securing certain types of cargo.

Operational results differ widely with some experts expressing a preference for webbing whilst others would not use it under any circumstances. The technical merit of this material lies between these two extremes. There are instances where webbing is ideal for securing deck cargoes and there are other instances where it should be avoided at all costs. 2

Special large bore pipes made of reinforced plastic or provided with contact sensitive outer coatings make webbing an ideal securing medium because its relatively broad, flat surfaces and reduced cutting nature allow it to be turned around and tightened against the pipes with short spans, producing a most acceptable stowage. On the other hand, large, heavy, crated items or high-standing heavy machinery where relatively long spans may be involved require wire or chain lashings, because sufficient unsupported tension weight is difficult to apply with webbing alone. 2

Webbing in general is manufactured from impregnated woven polyester fibre and therefore will stretch more than wire rope. It is supplied in reels and may be easily cut and fashioned to any required length. Webbing should not be used without clearly confirming from the manufacturers’ literature its nature, breaking load and application. Good quality webbing should not break at loads less than those specified by the manufacturers but caution should be used when hand tension ratchets are involved. Tension on a hand ratchet can be obtained easily up to 0.54 tonnes and then with increasing difficulty up to a maximum of 0.60 tonnes. A spanner or bar must never be used to tighten a hand tension ratchet since a recoil could seriously injure the user. 2

Web lashings certainly elongate considerably more than steel chains. However, chain lashings often become slack after some time, due to the motions of the ship and cargo, and slack chains with low elasticity will give jerking forces on securing points, cargo and lashings. The more elastic web lashings, with proper pre-tensioning, will largely avoid this problem.

It should be noted that web lashings have different load characteristics than chain, and care must be taken to ensure balanced loading within an arrangement.

Web lashings should not be used for securing ISO freight containers because of their tendency to stretch/elongate excessively.

Web lashings with ratchet tensioning devices are easier to adjust than chain lashings, however, tensioners should be used with care as the possibility exists of devices under load springing back and potentially causing injury.

Woven polyester fibre webbing is non abbrasive, strong material, and the width of the webbing provides a wider bearing surface with reduced risk of damage through localised loading. It is suitable for applications where hard chain devices would be likely to cause damage to cargo.

Modern web lashings have improved resistance to ripping and chafing compared to those available only a few years ago. However, they should be used and handled with great care, bearing in mind that the Maximum Securing Load decreases considerably if the synthetic fibre strap is ripped.

Web lashings should not be used on cargo with sharp edges or corners which may lead to damage of the lashing and cause it to fail in use. Particular care should be taken to see that the stitching of any web lashing is in a clear standing part and not subject to abrasion.

In order to ensure the correct use of webbing to secure cargo, the following points should be taken into account:

(a) Spans of unsupported webbing should be kept as short as possible.
(b) Protective sleeves should be used between webbing and abrasion points or areas.
(c) Spanners or bars must never be used to tighten ratchet hand tensioners. A recoil could seriously injure the user. 1
(d) Webbing should be kept away from acid and alkalis and care taken to ensure that it is never used to secure drums or packages of corrosive materials or chemicals which, if leaking, might affect it.
(e) All webbing should be inspected frequently and, if re-used, care taken to ensure that all lengths are free of defects or degradation.
(f) Web lashings should not be used for securing ISO freight containers.

4 Shackles

Shackles are supplied in several shapes, sizes and strengths of material. The two shapes most commonly used for general cargo lashing purposes are the D-shackle and the Bow-shackle, each with an eyed screw-pin. When using shackles it is correct to define their strength in terms of the safe working load although when preparing combined cargo lashings, the proof load of the shackles selected should equal the effective strength of the eyes formed in the wire rope. 2

No shackle should be used unless its safe working load is clearly marked. 4

A shackle should be of the correct type, size and safe working load for its intended use. 4

All shackles should have their pins effectively secured or seized with wire. 4

The running part of any rigging should not come into contact with the pin of a shackle. 4

All shackle pins should be kept lubricated. 4

5 Twistlocks

Twistlocks may be either left-locking or right-locking. It is recommended that only one type of twistlock be carried on board such that all the twistlocks are locked to the same side for ease of checking the locking position. If the ship carries both types of twistlock, then the different types should be clearly identified (e.g. green paint for right-locking and red paint for left-locking).

All twistlocks in use must be locked, including twistlocks located in the gap between 20’ containers (76mm gap).

Twistlocks must be inserted so that the opening devices are accessible for opening.

Twistlocks must always be inserted the correct way round and not upside down; the upper cone is usually more acutely pointed than the lower cone. Failure to do so could result in the unit being left in the unlocked position or otherwise lead to stacking or discharging problems with potentially disastrous consequences.

In order to ensure proper fit, twistlocks should be pushed all the way into the socket.

Semi-automatic twistlocks must be inserted into the ISO-hole on quayside with yellow cone upside, if this type is used.

The manufacturers’ operating instructions should be followed when freeing jammed semi-automatic twistlocks using emergency tools.

Twistlocks should be locked before applying lashings.

Twistlocks are not to be thrown down to the hatch cover, deck or another container roof. This may damage the twistlock, present a hazard to personnel or damage a container roof. A bucket or other suitable means of lowering or lifting must always be used.

6 Turnbuckles

The word “turnbuckle” is used collectively to include solid-cased bottle-screws and open-sided rigging screws or straining-screws. These are most commonly used for general cargo lashing and are supplied in a range of sizes and strengths with a closed eye at each end. Open-sided rigging-screws and straining-screws tend to have noticeably lower strengths than solid bottle-screws of the same size. The suppliers or manufacturers should be asked to provide the relevant test data before those responsible for lashing cargoes assume a Maximum Securing Load (MSL) or proof-load which may be erroneous. 2

Solid bottle-screws are typically sold by size of screw-pin diameter. Those of 24mm diameter have a proof-load of 4 tonnes and those of 38mm have a proof-load of 10 tonnes. Special purpose turnbuckles are available with much greater strengths than those given above. These may have particular fittings and modifications such as those used in the container trade. It is important that the manufacturers literature is consulted before such equipment is brought into use. 2

Always use turnbuckles with the tension force acting in one straight line. 1

Never allow a turnbuckle to become the fulcrum of angled forces, no matter how slight. 1

Make sure the screws are at adequate extension when the securing of the cargo is finalised, thereby providing scope for further tightening if this should prove necessary during the voyage. 1

As far as possible, lashing rod/turnbuckle assemblies should be evenly tightened.

Do not use excessive force when tightening turnbuckles. Never use extension devices (e.g. pipes or levers) to tighten the unit because this will over tension the lashing assembly.

During the voyage, turnbuckles should be checked at regular intervals and re-tightened as necessary.

Below deck, and where high torque upon a main lashing is involved, the eyes of the turnbuckle should be seized/stopped against its own body to prevent the screws working back under load during the course of the voyage. It may not prove possible to check and/or re-tension below-deck lashings once cargo loading has been completed and hatch covers are secured. 1

7 Bridge fittings

Bridge fittings should be evenly tensioned and not overtightened to the extent that they draw together adjacent containers. This is most likely to occur with empty or very lightly loaded containers. Adjustable or auto torque spanners are helpful to achieve the required condition, but good operator practice should achieve the required results.

In the case of bridge fittings with additional distance plates for pressure forces, the pressure device should be correctly fitted between the container corners.

Adjustable pressure or tension/compression elements have to be set with a minimum clearance to the longitudinal bulkhead in order to reduce the movement within the container block.

8 Dunnage

8.1 Dunnage used to increase friction

The use of dunnage would not be necessary if all items of cargo could be structurally welded to the weather deck using components of acceptable strength. In many instances such base securing measures are effected; for example, winches, large heavy machinery, and freight containers. This practice reinforces the principle that if all movement of the cargo relative to the deck of the ship can be restrained, then it is more likely that the cargo will not be lost, despite severe adverse weather conditions. However, such is the large range of deck cargoes which do not lend themselves to such securing that an appreciation of sliding effect is helpful when stowing and securing deck cargoes. 2 This brings us naturally to consideration of coefficients of friction. 1

The value for the coefficient of friction between various metals and steel (as may be the situation with some items) is recorded in numerous text books, and may be taken as ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 for deck cargoes. Coefficients of friction are normally expressed in terms of the natural tangent of the angle at which movement between the two surfaces will first occur in the absence of velocity or acceleration factors. As 0.1 is the natural tangent of 5.7, and 0.3 is 16.7, movement between two unrestricted metal surfaces can be expected to occur at angles between 5 and 16°.1 Between steel and steel, for instance, sliding can occur at angles of inclination as small as 6 degrees. 2 As this angle is likely to occur with fairly rapid frequency when a ship is rolling in a seaway, means to increase the frictional coefficient conventionally take the form of timber dunnage. 1

The values given for the coefficient of friction between dry timber and dry steel vary from 0.3 (17°) to 0.7 (35°). However, so far as is known, there is currently no published data relating to the coefficient of friction between timber dunnage and the painted surface of steel decks or steel hatch covers. 1 Experiments using 9” x 3” x 8ft sawn pine wood deals have produced clear results showing that, without any effects likely to be introduced by velocity or acceleration stresses due to rolling, timber dunnage will start to slide of its own accord at angles of inclination of 27 degrees. Thereafter, sliding continues at progressively smaller angles. It follows that when the vessel is rolling and timber dunnage is unsecured, it will begin to slide at angles of inclination considerably less than 27 degrees. 2

From such results it follows that the normal practice of utilising timber dunnage and of keeping downward-leading lashings as short and as tight as possible should be continued and encouraged. A near vertical lashing is of great benefit in resisting the cargo items tendency to tip, whereas a near horizontal lashing will greatly resist sliding forces. 1

If timber is used for increasing surface friction only, then dunnage planks of 20 or 30 mm thickness are sufficient.

Dunnage used as a friction increasing material (anti-skid material) is, by nature, a semi-consumable item. Plywood sheets provide a clean and simple method of increasing the friction between cargo and the ships deck. Plywood sheets are readily available, and have been found to be effective, efficient and of modest cost. They can be easily placed under roll trailer gooseneck end stands, container flats not secured to standard fittings and tracked vehicles where,in each case, additional friction between cargo and ships deck is required.

Other materials may also be considered, such as rubber sheeting, which can be particularly useful in steel/steel conditions.

On ro-ro ships, 0.4 (21.8°) is conventionally accepted as the coefficient of friction between a steel deck and rubber vehicle tyres, and 0.2 (11.3°) is accepted as the coefficient of friction between a vehicle trailer frame and the trestle (or horse) on which it rests.

8.2 Dunnage used to spread the load

Point loading and uneven distribution of cargo can, and frequently do, cause unnecessary damage to decks and hatch covers. 1 The maximum permissible deck and hatch cover loadings provided in sub-chapter 3.3 should not be exceeded.

The adverse effects of point loading are not always fully appreciated. On the one hand, a 6 tonne machine with a flat bed area of 3m2 will exert a distributed load of 2 tonnes/m2. On the other hand, a lady of 60kg weight in evening shoes with heel areas 50mm2 (0.00005m2) will exert a point loading of 1200 tonnes/m2 with all her weight on one heel! 1

When exceptionally heavy weights are to be carried, it may be necessary to shore up the weather deck from below, but care must be taken to spread the load on the ‘tween deck so as not to overload that plating. In the not so dense range of cargoes, units of 20 to 40 tonnes weight are common today, and stacking of unit weights is widespread. If a piece of machinery weighing, say, 30 tonnes with a base area of 6m2 is placed directly on the weather deck, the point loading will be 306 = 5 tonnes/m2. However, if the deck plating has a maximum permissible loading of 2½ tonnes/m2 then the minimum area over which the 30 tonne load must be spread is 302.5 = 12m2. Good dunnage must be used to spread the load, such as dunnage grating timbers nailed together. 1

It is not always prudent to weight the deck to its maximum permissible loading. Some allowance should be made to err on the safe side, given that heavy seas may be shipped on board; so it is always good practice to add 5% to the weight to be loaded before working out the dunnage area. For the 30 tonne weight, for instance, 31½ tonnes would be used and the dunnage area would increase from 12m2 to 12.6m2. 1

Dunnage timber is often no more than 6” x 1” (150 x 25mm) rough planking, but where weighty cargo items are involved, dunnage should be about 50mm (2”) thick and 150mm (6”) width. It is acceptable to use two ordinary 25mm (1”) dunnage planks nailed together securely to make up the required thickness. A dunnage width greater than 150mm is always acceptable, for instance 225mm (9”) to 305mm (12”), but where the thickness increases to 75mm (3”), care must be taken to choose straight grained timbers of as great a width as possible, and to ensure that they are laid with the grain horizontal and parallel with the deck. There have been incidents in the past where what appeared to have been a soundly dunnaged and well secured item of deck cargo broke adrift and was lost overboard due to a sequence of events commencing with the collapse of 3” x 3” dunnage timbers along the curved grain used on its edge, followed by consequential slackness in otherwise adequate lashing arrangements, followed by increasingly accelerated cargo movement and finally breakage of the lashings. 1

It is because of the vagaries and random nature of grain configurations in the thicker dunnage timbers that it may be preferable to use thicknesses made up of planks nailed together. As indicated above, a 2” thick dunnage timber can be made up using two 1” thick planks, and a 3” thick dunnage timber can be made up using 2” and 1” thick timber planks, all securely nailed together. To a large degree, this corrects the tendency for separation in timber with a badly aligned grain. 1

Given the same problems, but with only hatch covers available to take the cargo, a very carefully constructed grating system would be required if the maximum permissible loading on the hatch covers was no more than say 1.75 tonnes/m2. Similar considerations apply on ‘tween deck plating and ‘tween deck hatch covers, and also on tank top plating, although, in the latter instance, maximum permissible loading will be considerably greater than that allowed for weather deck areas and hatch covers. 1

It should be borne in mind that the Maximum Securing Load of conifer timber should be taken as 0.3kN/cm2 normal (i.e. transverse) to the grain.

9 Trailer horses (trailer trestles)

These devices are used as supports to semi-trailers shipped without the towing vehicle. They must be used to support any uncoupled semi-trailer and placed such that the king pin connection is not obstructed. It must be remembered that designs of tugmasters vary from port to port, and the trestle or horse should be so placed such that no restriction occurs at the discharge port.

10 Wheel Chocks

These devices are designed to be placed in the way of vehicle wheels as a supplementary or additional device to prevent the vehicle rolling. They are particularly useful in those cases where transverse stowage is necessary and as a supplementary device for securing semi-trailers. The wheel chocks should be placed prior to the disconnection of the towing vehicle and not be removed from a semi-trailer until the towing vehicle is reconnected.

3.1.2 Safety instructions related to handling of securing devices and to securing and unsecuring of units by ship or shore personnel
Safety instructions are also included for the stowage and securing of containers on deck of ships which are not specially designed and fitted for the purpose of carrying containers.
Personal safety
When carrying out cargo operations, personnel should wear safety helmets, protective footwear, protective clothing and gloves. Rain wear should also be worn, when required.
Personnel should be medically fit and adequately trained.
Cargo securing and unsecuring operations
Securing or unsecuring of cargo must be carried out whilst the ship is at berth or safe anchorage.
If securing or unsecuring is to be carried out at anchor or at an exposed berth, before operations commence, the Master should give due regard to the prevailing weather conditions and sea state. If the ship motions and/or wind effects are considered to be too severe, then operations should be postponed.
Once operations have commenced, the weather should be regularly monitored and if significant deterioration occurs, operations should be temporarily halted. Any cargo units on board which are not secured should be discharged, if safe to do so, or secured on board until weather conditions improve.
If a fall hazard exists, a fall protection system must be used to protect personnel.
A fall hazard exists whenever personnel are working within 0.9m of the unprotected edge of a work surface that is 3m or more above the adjoining surface and 0.3m or more, horizontally, from the adjacent surface, or where weather conditions impair vision or sound footing of personnel.
A safety harness with securing rope of limited length or inertia belt should be used by personnel when a fall hazard exists.
Fall protection systems should be rigged to minimise the free-fall distance such that personnel will not fall onto any lower level stowage or vessel structure.
Fall protection systems should be designed and used such that accidental disengagement is prevented.
Fall protection systems should be inspected and maintained prior to each days use.
Personnel required to use a fall protection system should be trained in its proper application.
If personnel are exposed to fall hazards where the use of a fall protection system is not feasible, they must be warned about the hazards involved and instructed how to minimise the hazard.
Mounting of cargo units by the use of ladders or other unsuitable means should be prohibited.
Personnel should not stand or work under moving cargo units or where others are working above.
All securing devices should be handled with due regard to the safety of both the personnel affixing them and any personnel who will come into contact with them whilst they are being affixed and/or are in place.
Securing devices and other equipment should be placed in bins when not in use.
Loose securing devices and other equipment should be removed from cargo unit tops and hatch covers before they are lifted or moved.
Securing devices and other equipment should not be thrown or dropped.
Particular care should be taken when working on cargo unit tops. Loose securing devices, particularly twistlocks and lashing equipment, pose a considerable danger if inadvertently dropped.
Defective securing devices should not be used but quarantined to ensure they cannot be confused with useable equipment and reported to the responsible Officer.
The tops of cargo units, decks and hatch covers should be checked for loose securing equipment after cargo operations have been completed.
Deck lashing points which obtrude on walkways should be painted white and warning notices displayed. 3
Personnel should be aware that a cargo unit may drop as a result of failure of cargo handling equipment and that the structure of a cargo unit itself may fail due to overloading or damage during cargo operations. This may result in parts of the cargo unit falling to the deck. Personnel transiting the deck during cargo operations should, if possible, use the outboard side of the ship. 4
Where the ships electrical supply is used for refrigerated containers, the supply cables should be provided with proper connections for the power circuits and for earthing the container. Before use the supply cables and connections should be inspected and any defects repaired and tested by a competent person. Supply cables should only be handled when the power is switched off. 3
Working environment
Loading and unloading areas should be adequately and properly illuminated.
Working on deck in ice, snow, strong wind or rain must be carefully controlled to prevent slips and falls.
If the wind is too strong for cranes to work, then personnel should seek shelter or work with great caution.
Work on top of cargo units should be avoided if ice, snow, wind or rain create a hazard.
Crane operations
When discharging containers which have been secured with twistlocks, the containers initially should be lifted slowly to ensure that the twistlock has been released properly.
When moving cargo units by crane, there should be no trailing rods or wires.
Crane drivers operating from the quay should not land cargo units on deck stows when unsighted, without confirmation that the area is clear
The crane driver should always be in contact with the other personnel involved in the cargo operations.
Intermodal (i.e. ISO) freight containers should be hoisted vertically only and using the correct spreader. 4
Containers should never be lifted using wire slings alone, because this may deform the container, rendering it unsuitable for placing in cell guides and/or handling by specialised equipment. 4

3.2 Evaluation of forces acting on cargo units.
This sub-chapter should contain the following information:
.1 tables or diagrams giving a broad outline of the accelerations which can be expected in various positions on board the ship in adverse sea conditions and with a range of applicable metacentric height (GM) values;
.2 examples of the forces acting on typical cargo units when subjected to the accelerations referred to in paragraph 3.2.1 above and angles of roll and metacentric height (GM) values above which the forces acting on the cargo units exceed the permissible limit for the specified securing arrangements as far as practicable;
.3 examples of how to calculate number and strength of portable securing devices required to counteract the forces referred to in 3.2.2 above as well as safety factors to be used for different types of portable cargo securing devices. Calculations may be carried out according to Annex 13 to the CSS Code or methods accepted by the Administration or approved by a classification society acceptable to the Administration;
.4 it is recommended that the designer of a Cargo Securing Manual converts the calculation method used into a form suiting the particular ship, its securing devices and the cargo carried. This form may consist of applicable diagrams, tables or calculated examples; and
.5 other operational arrangements such as electronic processing (EDP) or use of a loading computer may be accepted as alternatives to the requirements of the above paragraphs 3.2.1 to 3.2.4 above, providing that this system contains the same information.
If any computer program is to be used on board the vessel to derive the lashing securing forces then an appropriate print out should be included in the manual. Computer programs will not generally be approved unless specifically requested to be so, in which case they will be dealt with separately to approval of the Cargo Securing Manual.
Lloyd’s Register has developed a computer program for carrying out the calculations in accordance with the advanced calculation method described in Annex 13 to the CSS Code.
The “range of applicable metacentric heights” stated in paragraph 3.2.1 above should be obtained from the ships approved trim and stability booklet. For guidance it is suggested that the range of GM’s should cover from 0.15m to the GM given in the ballast condition x 1.25.
If the vessel is intended to carry irradiated nuclear fuel, plutonium and high-level radioactive wastes in flasks, reference should be made to IMO Resolution A.748(18) which details the increased ship acceleration levels to be taken into account.
Forces:
1 Forces, which have to be absorbed by suitable arrangements for stowage and securing to prevent cargo shifting, are generally composed of components acting relative to the axes of the ship:
longitudinal;
transverse; and
vertical
(Remark: For the purpose of stowage and securing cargo, longitudinal and transverse forces are considered predominant.)
2 Transverse forces alone, or the resultant of transverse, longitudinal and vertical forces, normally increase with the height of the stow and the longitudinal distance of the stow from the ship’s centre of motion in a seaway. The most severe forces can be expected in the furthest forward, the furthest aft and the highest stowage position on each side of the ship.
3 The transverse forces exerted increase directly with the metacentric height of the ship. An undue metacentric height may be caused by:
improper design of the ship;
unsuitable cargo distribution; and
unsuitable bunker and ballast distribution
4 Cargo should be so distributed that the ship, at all times during the voyage, has a metacentric height in excess of the required minimum and, whenever practicable, within an acceptable upper limit to minimize the forces acting on the cargo.
5 In addition to the forces referred to above, cargo carried on deck may be subjected to forces arising from the effects of wind and green seas.
6 Improper shiphandling (course or speed) may create adverse forces acting on the ship and the cargo.
7 The magnitude of the forces may be estimated by using the appropriate calculation methods as contained in this Cargo Securing Manual.
8 Although the operation of anti-roll devices may improve the behaviour of the ship in a seaway, the effect of such devices should not be taken into account when planning the stowage and securing of cargoes.
Methods to assess the efficiency of securing arrangements for non-standardized cargo:
1 Scope of application
The methods described in this section should be applied to non-standardized cargoes, but not to containers on containerships.
All lashing assemblies used in the application of the methods described in this annex must be attached to fixed securing points or strong supporting structures marked on the cargo unit or advised as being suitable, or taken as a loop around the unit with both ends secured to the same side as shown in Annex 5, Figure 2 of the Code. Lashings going over the top of the cargo unit, which have no defined securing direction but only act to increase friction by their pre-tension, cannot be credited in the evaluation of securing arrangements under this annex.
Very heavy units as carried under the provisions of chapter 1.8 of the Code of Safe Practice for Cargo Stowage and Securing (CSS Code) and those items for which exhaustive advice on stowage and securing is given in the annexes to the Code should be excluded.
Nothing in this section should be read to exclude the use of computer software, provided the output achieves design parameters which meet the minimum safety factors applied in this section.
The application of the methods described in this section is supplementary to the principles of good seamanship and shall not replace experience in stowage and securing practice.
2 Purpose of the methods
The methods should:
1 provide guidance for the preparation of this Cargo Securing Manual and the examples herein;
2 assist ship’s staff in assessing the securing of cargo units not covered by this Cargo Securing Manual;
3 assist qualified shore personnel in assessing the securing of cargo units not covered by this Cargo Securing Manual; and
4 serve as a reference for maritime and port-related education and training.
3 Presentation of the methods
The methods are presented in a universally applicable and flexible way. This presentation has been converted into a form suiting this particular ship, its securing equipment and the cargo carried. This form consists of applicable diagrams, tables and calculated examples.
4 Strength of securing equipment
4.1 Manufacturers of securing equipment should at least supply information on the nominal breaking strength of the equipment in kilo-newtons (kN) (1kN=100kg)
4.2 “Maximum securing load” (MSL) is a term used to define the load capacity for a device used to secure cargo to a ship. “Safe Working Load (SWL) may be substituted for MSL for securing purposes, provided this is equal to or exceeds the strength defined by MSL”

The MSLs for different securing devices are given in table 1 if not given under 4.3.
The MSL of timber should be taken as 0.3 kN/cm² normal to the grain.
Table 1 - Determination of MSL from breaking strength
Material MSL
shackles, rings, deckeyes,
turnbuckles of mild steel

lashing rods, twistlocks, stackers,
sockets, ‘D’ rings, lashing plates,
penguin hooks and bridge fittings

fibre rope

web lashings

wire rope (single use)

wire rope (re-useable)

steel band (single use)

chains 50% of breaking strength


50% of breaking strength



33% of breaking strength

50% of breaking strength

80% of breaking strength

30% of breaking strength

70% of breaking strength

50% of breaking strength
4.3 For particular securing devices (e.g. fibre straps with tensioners or special equipment for securing containers), a permissible working load may be prescribed and marked by authority. This should be taken as the MSL.
4.4 When the components of a lashing device are connected in series (for example, a wire to a shackle to a deckeye), the minimum MSL in the series shall apply to that device.

5 Rule-of-thumb method
5.1 The total of the MSL values of the securing devices on each side of a unit of cargo (port as well as starboard) should equal the weight of the unit. (The weight of the unit should be taken in kN).
5.2 This method, which implies a transverse acceleration of 1g (9.81 m/s²), applies to nearly any size of ship, regardless of the location of stowage, stability and loading condition, season and area of operation. The method, however, takes into account neither the adverse effects of lashing angles and non-homogeneous distribution of forces among the securing devices nor the favourable effect friction.
5.3 Transverse lashing angles to the deck should not be greater than 60° and it is important that adequate friction is provided by the use of suitable material. Additional lashings at angles of greater than 60° may be desirable to prevent tipping but are not to be counted in the number of lashings under the rule-of-thumb.
6 Safety factor
When using balance calculation methods for assessing the strength of the securing devices, a safety factor is used to take account of the possibility of uneven distribution of forces among the devices or reduced capability due to the improper assembly of the devices or other reasons. This safety factor is used in the formula to derive the calculated strength (CS) from the MSL and shown in the relevant method used.



Notwithstanding the introduction of such a safety factor, care should be taken to use securing elements of similar material and length in order to provide a uniform elastic behaviour within the arrangement.

7 Advanced calculation method
7.1 Assumption of external forces
External forces to a cargo unit in longitudinal, transverse and vertical directions should be obtained using the formula:
F (x,y,z) = m. a (x,y,z) + Fw(x,y) + Fs(x,y)
where:
F (x,y,z) = longitudinal, transverse and vertical forces
m = mass of the unit
a (x,y,z) = longitudinal, transverse and vertical accelerations (see table 2)
Fw(x,y) = longitudinal and transverse forces by wind pressure
Fs(x,y) = longitudinal and transverse forces by sea sloshing
The basic acceleration data are presented in table 2.

Table 2 – Basic acceleration data

Remarks:
The given transverse acceleration figures include components of gravity, pitch and heave parallel to the deck. The given vertical acceleration figures do not include the static weight component.
The basic acceleration data are to be considered as valid under the following operational conditions:
1 Operation in unrestricted area;
2 Operation during the whole year;
3 Duration of the voyage is 25 days;
4 Length of ship is 100 m;
5 Service speed is 15 knots;
6 B/GM  13 (B: breadth of ship, GM: metacentric height).
For operation in a restricted area, reduction of these figures may be considered, taking into account the season of the year and the duration of the voyage.
For ships of a length other than 100m and a service speed other than 15 knots, the acceleration figures should be corrected by a factor given in table 3.

For length/speed combinations not directly tabulated, the following formula may be used to obtain the correction factor with v = speed in knots and L = length between perpendiculars in metres:

correction factor = ( 0.345*v / L^0.5) + (58.62*L-1034.5)/L^2

This formula shall not be used for ship lengths less than 50 m or more than 300 m.
It should be noted that Table 3 applies to transverse, longitudinal and vertical accelerations, but Table 4 applies to transverse accelerations only.
It is suggested that length between perpendiculars be used for the length of the ship.
In addition, for ships with B/GM less than 13, the transverse acceleration figures should be corrected by a factor given in Table 4.

Note: Table 4 provides correction factors to be applied to transverse acceleration figures where the ratio of B/GM is between 7 and 13. Where the value of B/GM is less than 7, the acceleration values can either be determined by:
(i) using an alternative method acceptable to the Administration to determine the acceleration values;
(ii) using the correction figures in Table 4 for B/GM=7, provided that the acceleration values are not less than the values obtained from the LR Rules Part 3, Ch 14, Section 8. It has been found that, in most cases, the correction factors for B/GM=7 may be used down to a minimum of B/GM=4, and below this the LR method should be used.
The following cautions should be observed;
In the case of marked roll resonance with amplitudes above + 30°, the given figures of transverse acceleration may be exceeded. Effective measures should be taken to avoid this condition.
In the case of heading into the seas at high speed with marked slamming shocks, the given figures of longitudinal and vertical acceleration may be exceeded. An appropriate reduction of speed should be considered.
In the case of running before large stern or quartering seas with a stability which does not amply exceed the accepted minimum requirements, large roll amplitudes must be expected with transverse accelerations greater than the figures given. An appropriate change of heading should be considered.
Forces by wind and sea to cargo units above the weather deck should be accounted for by simple approach:
force by wind pressure = 1 kN/m²
force by sea sloshing = 1 kN/m²
Sloshing by sea can induce forces much greater than the figure given above. This figure should be considered as remaining unavoidable after adequate measures to prevent overcoming seas.
Sea sloshing forces need only be applied to height of deck cargo up to 2m above the weather deck or hatch top.
For voyages in a restricted area, sea sloshing forces may be neglected.

7.2 Balance of forces and moments
The balance calculation should preferably be carried out for:
- transverse sliding in port and starboard directions;
- transverse tipping in port and starboard directions;
- longitudinal sliding under conditions of reduced friction in forward and aft directions
In the case of symmetrical securing arrangements, one appropriate calculation is sufficient.
Friction contributes towards prevention of sliding. The following friction coefficients (µ) should be applied.

Table 5 - Friction coefficients
Materials in contact Friction coefficient, (µ )
Timber-timber, wet or dry
steel-timber or steel-rubber
steel-steel, dry
steel-steel, wet 0.4
0.3
0.1
0.0
7.2.1 Transverse sliding
The balance calculation should meet the following condition (see also figure 1):
Fy  .m.g + CS1.f1 + CS2.f2+ ... + CSn.fn
where
n is the number of lashings being calculated
Fy is transverse force from load assumption (kN)
 is friction coefficient. See table 5
m is mass of the cargo unit (t)
g is gravity acceleration of earth = 9.81 m/s²
CS is calculated strength of transverse securing devices (kN)

f is a function of  and the vertical securing angle  (see table 6).

Figure 1 - Balance of transverse forces
A vertical securing angle  greater than 60° will reduce the effectiveness of this particular securing device in respect to sliding of the unit. Disregarding of such devices from the balance of forces should be considered, unless the necessary load is gained by the imminent tendency to tipping or by a reliable pre-tensioning of the securing device and maintaining the pre-tension throughout the voyage.
Any horizontal securing angle, i.e. deviation from the transverse direction, should not exceed 30°, otherwise an exclusion of this securing device from the transverse sliding balance should be considered.

Table 6 – f Values as a function of  and µ

 -30ْ -20ْ -10ْ 0ْ 10ْ 20ْ 30ْ 40ْ 50ْ 60ْ 70ْ 80ْ 90ْ
0.4 0.67 0.80 0.92 1.00 1.05 1.08 1.07 1.02 0.95 0.85 0.72 0.57 0.40
0.3 0.72 0.84 0.93 1.00 1.04 1.04 1.02 0.96 0.87 0.76 0.62 0.47 0.30
0.1 0.82 0.91 0.97 1.00 1.00 0.97 0.92 0.83 0.72 0.59 0.44 0.27 0.10
0.0 0.87 0.94 0.98 1.00 0.98 0.94 0.87 0.77 0.64 0.50 0.34 0.17 0.00
Remark: f = .sin  + cos 

As an alternative to using Table 6 to determine the forces in a securing arrangement, the method outlined in paragraph 7.3 can be used to take account of transverse and longitudinal components of lashing forces.
7.2.2 Transverse tipping
This balance calculation should meet the following condition (see also figure 2):
Fy . a  b.m.g + CS1.c1 + CS2.C2 + ... + CSn.cn
where
Fy, m, g, CS, n are as explained under 7.2.1
a is lever-arm of tipping (m) (see figure 2)
b is lever-arm of stableness (m) (see figure 2)
c is lever-arm of securing force (m) (see figure 2)

Figure 2 - Balance of transverse moments
7.2.3 Longitudinal sliding
Under normal conditions the transverse securing devices provide sufficient longitudinal components to prevent longitudinal sliding. If in doubt, a balance calculation should meet the following condition:
Fx  .(m. g - Fz) + CS1.f1 + CS2.f2 + ... + CSn.fn
where
Fx is longitudinal force from load assumption (kN)
, m, g, f, n are as explained under 7.2.1
Fz is vertical force from load assumption (kN)
CS is calculated strength of longitudinal securing devices (kN)

Remark: Longitudinal components of transverse securing devices should not be assumed greater than 0.5.CS.
Note: Under certain circumstances, depending upon the length of the cargo unit, its stowage position and the height of the centre of gravity, it may be necessary to undertake a balance calculation to ascertain if longitudinal tipping could also present a stowage problem.
7.2.4 Calculated example

A calculated example for this method is shown in paragraph 7.4 , Calculated example 1.


7.3 Balance of forces - alternative method

The balance of forces described in paragraph 7.2.1 and 7.2.3 will normally furnish a suffi-ciently accurate determination of the adequacy of the securing arrangement. However, this alternative method allows a more precise consideration of horizontal securing angles.

Securing devices usually do not have a pure longitudinal or transverse direction in practice but have an angle â in the horizontal plane. This horizontal securing angle â is defined in this annex as the angle of deviation from the transverse direction. The angle â is to be scaled in the quadrantal mode, i.e. between 0 and 90°.

Figure 3 - Definition of the vertical and horizontal securing angles and .

A securing device with an angle â develops securing effects both in longitudinal and transverse direction, which can be expressed by multiplying the calculated strength CS with the appropriate values of fx or fy. The values of fx and fy can be obtained from Table 7.

Table 7 consists of five sets of figures, one each for the friction coefficients µ = 0.4, 0.3, 0.2, 0.1 and 0. Each set of figures is obtained by using the vertical angle á and horizontal angle â. The value of fx is obtained when entering the table with â from the right while fy is obtained when entering with â from the left, using the nearest tabular value for á and â. Interpolation is not required but may be used.

The balance calculations are made in accordance with the following formulae:

Transverse sliding : Fy < µ.m•g + fy1* CS1 + ... + fyn * CSn
Longitudinal sliding : Fx < µ(m.g - Fz) + fx1 * CS1 + ... + fxn * CSn
Transverse tipping : Fy .a < b.m•g + 0.9*(CS1 * C1 + CS2 * C2 +.....+ CSn * Cn)

Caution:

Securing devices, which have a vertical angle á of less than 45º in combination with horizontal angle â greater than 45º, should not be used in the balance of transverse tipping in the above formula.

All symbols used in these formulae have the same meaning as defined in paragraph 7.2 except fy and fx, obtained from Table 7, and CS is as follows:



A calculated example for this method is shown in paragraph 7.4 , Calculated example 2.








7.4 Advanced calculation method:
Calculated example 1. (Refer to paragraph 7.2, Balance of forces and moments)

Ship: L = 120 m; B = 20 m; GM = 1.4 m; speed = 15 knots
Cargo: m = 62t; dimensions = 6 x 4 x 4m;
stowage at 0.7L on deck, low

The lashing arrangement shows wire ropes fastened to both the hatch cover and wrapped over the corner of the cover to attach to the deck. It should be noted that the arrangement shown may produce excessive forces in the hatch cover, coaming and ship structure. This arrangement would not be acceptable without additional consideration of the Maximum Permissible Loading of Hatch Covers, also the horizontal restraint of Hatch Covers and Coamings being suitable for the derived loading. Structure should in all cases be approved for loads imposed.

This calculated example is not based on the particulars and design characteristics of the ship for which this Manual is intended, and may be used for guidance only.

Securing material:

wire rope: breaking strength = 125kN;
MSL = 100 kN
shackles, turnbuckles, deck rings: breaking strength = 180 kN;
MSL = 90 kN
stowage on dunnage boards: . .  = 0.3; CS = 90/1.5 = 60 kN


Securing arrangement:

side n CS  f c
_______________________________________________________________________________
STBD 4 60 kN 40° 0.96 -
PORT 2 60 kN 40° 0.96 -
PORT 2 60 kN 10° 1.04 -


External forces:

Fx = 2.9 x 0.89 x 62 + 16 + 8 = 184 kN
Fy = 6.3 x 0.89 x 62 + 24 + 12 = 384 kN
Fz = 6.2 x 0.89 x 62 = 342 kN

Balance of forces (STBD arrangement):

384  0.3 x 62 x 9.81 + 4 x 60 x 0.96
384  412 this is OK!

Balance of forces (PORT arrangement):

384  0.3 x 62 x 9.81 + 2 x 60 x 0.96 + 2 x 60 x 1.04
384  422 this is OK!

Balance of moments:

384 x 1.8  2 x 62 x 9.81
691  1216 no tipping, even without lashings!


Calculated example 2.(Refer to paragraph 7.3, Balance of forces – alternative method)

A cargo unit of 68 t mass is stowed on timber (µ = 0.3) in the .tween deck at 0.7 L of a vessel. L = 160m, B = 24 m, v = 18 kn and GM = 1.5 m. Dimensions of the cargo unit are height = 2.4 m and width = 1.8 m. The external forces are: Fx = 112 kN, Fy = 312 kN, Fz = 346 kN.

The top view shows the overall securing arrangement with eight lashings.




Calculation of balance forces:
No. MSL
(kN) CS
(kN)

fy Cs*fy fx Cs*fx
1 108 80

0.86 68.8 stbd 0.58 46.4 fwd
2 90 67

0.83 55.6 stbd 0.45 30.2 aft
3 90 67

0.83 55.6 stbd 0.45 30.2 fwd
4 108 80

0.78 62.4 stbd 0.69 55.2 aft
5 108 80

0.86 68.8 stbd 0.58 46.4 aft
6 90 67

0.92 61.6 stbd 0.57 38.2 aft
7 90 67

1.03 69.0 stbd 0.27 18.1 fwd
8 108 80

0.86 68.8 stbd 0.58 46.4 fwd










Transverse balance of forces (STBD arrangement) Nos. 1, 2, 3 and 4:

312 < 0.3.68.9.81 + 68.8 + 55.6 + 55.6 + 62.4
312 < 443 this is OK !

Transverse balance of forces (PORT arrangement) Nos. 5, 6, 7 and 8:

312 < 0.3.68.9.81 + 68.8 + 61.6 + 69.0 + 68.8
312 < 468 this is OK!

Longitudinal balance of forces (FWD arrangement) Nos. 1, 3, 7, 8:

112 < 0.3 (68.9.81 . 346) + ) + 46.4 + 30.2 + 18.1 + 46.4
112 < 237 this is OK !

Longitude balance of forces (AFT arrangement) Nos. 2, 4, 5, 6:

112 < 0.3 (68.9.81 . 346) + 30.2 + 55.2 + 46.4 + 38.2
112 <266 this is OK!

Transverse Tipping

Unless specific information is provided, the vertical center of gravity of the cargo unit can be assumed to be at one half the height and the transverse center of gravity at one half the width. Also, if the lashing is connected as shown in the sketch, instead of measuring c, the length of the lever from the tipping axis to the lashing CS, it is conservative to assume that it is equal to the width of the cargo unit.




Fy x a < b x m x g + 0.9 x (CS1 x c1 + CS2 x c2 + CS3 x c3 + CS4 x c4)
312x 2.4/2 < 1.8/2 x 68 x 9.81 + 0.9 x 1.8 x (80 + 67 + 67 + 80)
374 < 600 + 476
374 < 1076 this is OK!
Explanations and interpretation of “Methods to assess the efficiency of securing arrangements for non-standardized cargo”

1 The exclusion of very heavy units as carried under the provisions of chapter 1.8 of the CSS Code from the scope of application of the methods should be understood to accommodate the possibility of adapting the stowage and securing of such units to specifically determined weather conditions and sea conditions during transport. The exclusion should not be understood as being a restriction of the methods to units up to a certain mass or dimension.

2 The acceleration figures given in table 2, in combination with the correction factors, represent peak values on a 25-day voyage. This does not imply that peak values in x, y and z directions occur simultaneously with the same probability. It can be generally assumed that peak values in the transverse direction will appear in combination with less than 60% of the peak values in longitudinal and vertical directions.

Peak values in longitudinal and vertical directions may be associated more closely because they both arise from pitching and heaving.

3 The advanced calculation method uses the “worst case approach”. That is expressed clearly by the transverse acceleration figures, which increase to forward and aft in the ship and thereby show the influence of transverse components of simultaneous vertical accelerations. Consequently there is no need to consider vertical accelerations separately in the balances of transverse forces and moments. These simultaneously acting vertical accelerations create an apparent increase of weight of the unit and thus increase the effect of the friction in the balance of forces and the moment of stableness in the balance of moments. For this reason there is no reduction of the force m.g normal to the deck due to the presence of an angle of heel.

The situation is different for the longitudinal sliding balance. The worst case would be a peak value of the longitudinal force Fx accompanied by an extreme reduction of weight through the vertical force Fz.

4 The friction coefficients shown in the methods are somewhat reduced against appropriate figures in other publications. The reason for this should be seen in various influences which may appear in practical shipping, as: moisture, grease, oil, dust and other residues, and vibration of the ship.

There are certain stowage materials available which are said to increase friction considerably. Extended experience with these materials may bring additional coefficients into practical use.

5 The principal way of calculating forces within the securing elements of a complex securing arrangement should necessarily include the consideration of:

- load-elongation behaviour (elasticity),

- geometrical arrangement (angles, length),

- pre-tension

of each individual securing element.

This approach would require a large volume of information and a complex, iterative calculation. The results would still be doubtful due to uncertain parameters.

Therefore a simplified approach has been chosen with the assumption that the elements take an even load of CS (calculated strength) which is reduced against the MSL (maximum securing load) by the safety factor 1.5.

6 When employing the advanced calculation method, the way of collecting data should be followed as shown in the calculated example. It is acceptable to estimate securing angles, to take average angles for a set of lashings and similarly to arrive at reasonable figures of the levers a, b and c for the balance of moments.

It should be borne in mind that where meeting or missing the balance of forces in the calculation arises from a small change in one or other of the parameters the arrangement may be acceptable. There is no clear cut borderline between safe and unsafe conditions in practical terms. If there is any doubt the arrangement should be modified to achieve a proper balance. All seamen are well aware that the sea and weather are unpredictable, in practical terms the addition of another lashing or using a larger wire adds little to the cost but may prove critical in adverse conditions.

Note: The Data Input Sheets on the following pages may be used to assist in the manual calculation of lashing arrangements.

Advanced cargo securing calculation, data input sheet

Ship Details
Ships Length Breadth GM Speed B/GM


Cargo Details
Cargo L from Mass Dimensions C of G Half Friction
(DH/DL/
TD/LH) Aft (m) Length
F/A Width Height
(a) base
(b) Coefficient
()


Lashing Details f = .sin  + cos 
No Transverse Lashings Longitudinal Lashings
(n) Port/
Stbd CS Angle
() Lever
Arm (c) CSn.fn CSn.cn Fore/Aft CS Angle
() CSn.fn
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Total Port Total Fwd
Total Stbd Total Aft

Results [Apply Fs(x,y) only to deck cargo up to 2m above deck/hatch top]
Force by Wind Pressure (Fw(x,y)) Force by Sea Sloshing (Fs(x,y))
(Fw(x)) Width x Height (Fw(y)) Length x Height (Fs(x)) 2 x Width (Fs(y)) 2 x Length


F (x,y,z) = m. a (x,y,z) + Fw(x,y) + Fs(x,y) [Apply Table 4 to ay only]
Table 2 Table Table Accelerations Corrected Forces
ax ay az 3 4 ax ay az Fx Fy Fz


Fy  .m.g + CS1.f1 + CS2.f2+ ... + CSn.fn
Transverse Sliding (Port) Transverse Sliding (Starboard)
Fy Lashings Balance OK? Fy Lashings Balance OK?


Fy . a  b.m.g + CS1. c1 + CS2. c2 + ... + CSn.cn
Transverse Tipping (Port) Transverse Tipping (Starboard)
Fy.a Lashings Balance OK? Fy.a Lashings Balance OK?


Fx  .(m. g - Fz) + CS1.f1 + CS2.f2 + ... + CSn.fn
Longitudinal Sliding (Fwd) Longitudinal Sliding (Aft)
Fx Lashings Balance OK? Fx Lashings Balance OK?


Advanced cargo securing calculation, data input sheet
Worked example

Ship Details
Ships Length Breadth GM Speed B/GM
120 20 1.4 15 14.286

Cargo Details
Cargo L from Mass Dimensions C of G Half Friction
(DH/DL/
TD/LH) Aft (m) Length
F/A Width Height
(a) base
(b) Coefficient
()
DL 0.7 62 6 4 4 1.8 2 0.3

Lashing Details f = .sin  + cos 
No Transverse Lashings Longitudinal Lashings
(n) Port/
Stbd CS Angle
() Lever
Arm (c) CSn.fn CSn.cn Fore/Aft CS Angle
() CSn.fn
1 S 60 40 2.3 57.53 138 - - - -
2 S 60 40 2.3 57.53 138 - - - -
3 S 60 40 2.3 57.53 138 - - - -
4 S 60 40 2.3 57.53 138 - - - -
5 P 60 40 2.3 57.53 138 - - - -
6 P 60 40 2.3 57.53 138 - - - -
7 P 60 10 0.8 62.21 48 - - - -
8 P 60 10 0.8 62.21 48 - - - -
9 - - - - - - - - - -
10 - - - - - - - - - -
Total Port 239.48 372 Total Fwd 0
Total Stbd 230.12 552 Total Aft 0

Results [Apply Fs(x,y) only to deck cargo up to 2m above deck/hatch top]
Force by Wind Pressure (Fw(x,y)) Force by Sea Sloshing (Fs(x,y))
(Fw(x)) Width x Height (Fw(y)) Length x Height (Fs(x)) 2 x Width (Fs(y)) 2 x Length
4 x 4 = 16 6 x 4 = 24 2 x 4 = 8 2 x 6 = 12

F (x,y,z) = m. a (x,y,z) + Fw(x,y) + Fs(x,y) [Apply Table 4 to ay only]
Table 2 Table Table Accelerations Corrected Forces
ax ay az 3 4 ax ay az Fx Fy Fz
2.9 6.3 6.2 0.89 - 2.581 5.607 5.518 184.02 383.63 342.12

Fy  .m.g + CS1.f1 + CS2.f2+ ... + CSn.fn
Transverse Sliding (Port) Transverse Sliding (Starboard)
Fy Lashings Balance OK? Fy Lashings Balance OK?
383.63 421.946 YES 383.63 412.586 YES

Fy . a  b.m.g + CS1. c1 + CS2. c2 + ... + CSn.cn
Transverse Tipping (Port) Transverse Tipping (Starboard)
Fy.a Lashings Balance OK? Fy.a Lashings Balance OK?
690.53 1588.44 YES 690.53 1768.44 YES

Fx  .(m. g - Fz) + CS1.f1 + CS2.f2 + ... + CSn.fn
Longitudinal Sliding (Fwd) Longitudinal Sliding (Aft)
Fx Lashings Balance OK? Fx Lashings Balance OK?
184.02 79.83 NO 184.02 79.83 NO

3.3 Application of portable securing devices on various cargo units, vehicles and stowage blocks.
3.3.1 This sub-chapter draws the masters attention to the correct application of portable securing devices.
In order to ensure the correct application of the portable securing devices, the following factors should be taken into account:
1 duration of the voyage;
2 geographical area of the voyage with particular regard to the minimum safe operational temperature of the portable securing devices (this is particularly important where ambient deck temperatures at or below 0°C may be encountered. Appropriate grades of steel should be used in such cases);
3 sea conditions which may be expected;
4 dimensions, design and characteristics of the ship;
5 expected static and dynamic forces during the voyage;
6 type and packaging of cargo units including vehicles;
7 intended stowage pattern of the cargo units including vehicles; and
8 mass and dimensions of the cargo units and vehicles.
3.3.2 This sub-chapter describes the application of portable cargo securing devices as to number of lashings and allowable lashing angles. Where necessary, the text is supplemented by suitable drawings or sketches to facilitate the correct understanding and proper application of the securing devices to various types of cargo and cargo units.
It should be noted that for certain cargo units and other entities with low friction resistance, it is advisable to place soft boards or other anti-skid material under the cargo to increase friction between the deck and the cargo.
3.3.3 This sub-chapter contains guidance as to the recommended location and method of stowing and securing of containers, trailers and other cargo carrying vehicles, palletised cargoes, unit loads and single cargo items (e.g. woodpulp, paper rolls, etc.), heavy weight cargoes, cars and other vehicles.
Note: It should be remembered that lashing is not the only way of securing cargo and timber shoring and wedging is possibly the more frequently used method for packaged units below decks, lashing being more common on the weather decks and hatch covers. Shoring and wedging are the most appropriate method of securing in many cases since the cargo thrust acts opposite to hydrostatic loading in the case of side shell frames, bulkhead stiffeners and deck beams.
Maximum permissible deck and hatch loadings should not be exceeded. Clear guidance should be provided as to what values for these should be used on the ship in question. Point loading and uneven distribution of cargo can, and frequently do, cause unnecessary damage to decks and hatch covers. The ships capacity plan and/or general arrangement plan should always be consulted, if the information is not there the ships stability booklet should be consulted. The relevant figures should be quoted in this Manual.

It must be stressed that full details should be included of maximum permissible deck and hatch loadings, as well as advice on the correct distribution of weights. If the maximum permissible deck and hatch loadings are not available from the vessels documentation, the following Table of default values taken from the Lloyd’s Register Ship Rules should be included in the Cargo Securing Manual:

Permissible Cargo Loading in tonne f/m2
Inner Bottom T
Cargo Decks in Holds Htd/1.39
Cargo Hatch Covers Htd/1.39
Weather Deck 0.865
Weather Deck Hatch Covers 0.865

Where: T = Summer Load Draft in Metres
Htd = Tween Deck Height in Metres

Specified loading may be greater or less than the default values, e.g. on decks specifically designed for the carriage of vehicles the UDL loading may be less but local loading may be greater. For all Ro-Ro ships the loadings must be stated.

Ships mobile cargo handling equipment not fixed to the ship should at all times be adequately secured.

Deck cargo shall be so distributed and stowed -

1 as to avoid excessive loading having regard to the strength of the deck and integral supporting structure of the ship;

2 as to ensure that the ship will retain adequate stability at all stages of the voyage having regard in particular to -

1 the vertical distribution of the deck cargo;
2 wind moments which may normally be expected on the voyage;
3 losses of weight in the ship, including in particular those due to the consumption of fuel and stores; and
4 possible increases of weight of the ship or deck cargo, including in particular those due to the absorption of water and to icing;

3 as not to impair the weathertight or watertight integrity of any part of the ship or its fittings or appliances, and as to ensure the proper protection of ventilators and air pipes;

4 that its height above the deck or any other part of the ship on which it stands will not interfere with the navigation or working of the ship;

5 that it will not interfere with or obstruct access to the ship’s steering arrangements, including emergency steering arrangements;

6 that it will not interfere with or obstruct safe and efficient access by the crew to or between their quarters and any machinery space or other part of the ship used in the working of the ship, and will not in particular obstruct any opening giving access to those positions or impede its being readily secured weathertight.

Annexes to Chapter 3
Note: The following extracts, taken from the Annexes to the CSS Code, provide guidance as to how sub-chapters 3.3.2 and 3.3.3 of the Manual could be completed. Care should be taken to ensure that only those sections applicable to the ship in question are included.

Annex 1
Safe stowage and securing of containers on deck of ships which are not specially designed and fitted for the purpose of carrying containers


1 Stowage

1.1 Containers carried on deck or on hatches of such ships should preferably be stowed in the fore-and-aft direction.

1.2 Containers should not extend over the ship's sides. Adequate supports should be provided when containers overhang hatches or deck structures.

1.3 Containers should be stowed and secured so as to permit safe access for personnel in the necessary operation of the ship.

1.4 Containers should at no time overstress the deck or hatches on which they are stowed.

1.5 Bottom-tier containers, when not resting on stacking devices, should be stowed on timber of sufficient thickness, arranged in such a way as to transfer the stack load evenly on to the structure of the stowage area. Where permanent foot-locks and/or foot restraints are not welded to the ship structure, it is recommended that containers are not carried more than one tier in height and that the corner castings are placed on adequate timber dunnage laid in such a way as not to contact the sills and/or side frames. The full load of the container shall be spread over the area of the deck/hatch cover on which it is stowed. 2

1.6 When stacking containers, use should be made of locking devices, cones, or similar stacking aids, as appropriate, between them. If containers are to be stacked two (or more) tiers high, the base tier should be provided with permanent foot-locks for the lower corner castings. The containers should be secured one above the other by means of twist-locks and/or lockable interlayer stackers, and the upper corner castings of a block of units should be locked into each other transversely by means of screw-bridge fittings and/or tension clamps. A variation of this allows for permanent welded restraints against transverse and longitudinal movement instead of foot-locks, and for non-lockable inter-layer stackers to be used between the units. However, lashing chains, lashing bars and/or lashing wires of appropriate strength and disposition must be utilised to secure the containers to the ship’s structure. If circumstances demand a twin-tier stack in the absence of foot-locks or welded restraints, then foot lashings must be used and the units should be twist-locked together and provided with lashings adequate and in line with “deck cargo” requirements. 2 Where permanent foot-locks and bridging interlayer stackers are not used, it may prove essential to use screw-bridge fittings at upper and lower adjacent corner castings in transverse stow. In such instances, timber wedge-chocks should be driven between the corner castings and the screw-bridge fittings then fully tightened. This will assist in keeping the stowage rigid. In the absence of wedge-chocks unacceptable working stresses may be engendered causing fracture of the screw bridge fittings. In the absence of foot-locks or permanent welded restraints, units in longitudinal row must be lashed and secured independently. They must not be loop-lashed. It is not sufficient to use only tension clamps or screw-bridge fittings in the longitudinal mode to secure together the abutting ends of each unit. 2

1.7 When stowing containers on deck or hatches, the position and strength of the securing points should be taken into consideration.

1.8 The individual gross weights of containers, or their precise position in the stowage, are seldom know before the stowage is complete, and the weights may not be confirmed until some time after the ship has left port. With this in mind, where precise weights are not known, it should be assumed that all 20ft units have a gross weight of 20 tonnes on average, that all 40ft units have a gross weight of 26 tonnes on average 2, and that the centres of gravity lie at the geometrical centre of each container.

1.9 Most containers are designed to stack nine high when loaded and it is very rare that a sound container will suffer a structural collapse. Occasionally however, container stows collapse when the weight of containers and their contents placed in the upper layers of the stack exceeds the permissible limit and produces unacceptable loads on the containers in the bottom tier. Care should therefore be taken to ensure that the safe weight load of the individual container is not exceeded and that the gross and tare weights are accurately recorded and declared. 2

1.10 Where containers are stowed in cargo holds they must be secured in a solid block and steps must be taken to ensure that the containers are keyed to the tanktop and finally, that adequate inter-locking of units is effected, together with a commonsense approach to the securing of the resulting block to the ship’s structure. If any slackness develops, the containers will chafe in heavy weather and when heavier boxes are stowed on top, the cornerposts may telescope and the stow collapse. 2

2 Securing

2.1 All containers should be effectively secured in such a way as to protect them from sliding and tipping. Hatch covers carrying containers should be adequately secured to the ship.

2.2 Containers should be secured using one of the three methods recommended in figure 1 or methods equivalent thereto.

2.3 Lashings should preferably consist of wire ropes or chains or material with equivalent strength and elongation characteristics. It is recommended never to use web lashings for securing ISO freight containers, because they stretch too much.

2.4 Timber shoring should not exceed 2 m in length.

2.5 Wire clips should be adequately greased and tightened so that the dead end of the wire is visibly compressed (figure 2).

2.6 Lashings should be kept, when possible, under equal tension.

2.7 When circumstances require a mixture of general break-bulk cargo together with containers, whether above or below deck, great care must be taken with the stowage. Damage resulting from cargo shifting can occur in these situations as a result of an unrealistic reliance upon the containers acting as “restraining walls” instead of the cargo being secured in accordance with normal sound stowage practices. Great care should also be taken when loading general cargo on top of containers. 2




Figure 1 - Recommended methods of non-standardized securing of containers
Figure 1 (cont) - Recommended methods of non-standardized securing of containers Figure 2

Annex 2
Safe stowage and securing of portable tanks


1 Introduction

1.1 The provisions of this annex apply to a portable tank, which in the context of this annex, means a tank which is not permanently secured on board the vessel and has a capacity of more than 450 l and a shell fitted with external stabilizing members and items of service equipment and structural equipment necessary for the transport of liquids, solids or gases.

1.2 These provisions do not apply to tanks intended for the transport of liquids, solids or gases having a capacity of 450 l or less.

Note: The capacity for portable tanks for gases is 1000 l or more.

2 General provisions for portable tanks

2.1 Portable tanks should be capable of being loaded and discharged without the need of removal of their structural equipment and be capable of being lifted onto and off the ship when loaded.

2.2 The applicable requirements of the International Convention for Safe Containers, 1972, as amended, should be fulfilled by any tankcontainer which meets the definition of a container within the terms of that Convention. Additionally, the provisions of section 13 of the General Introduction to the IMDG Code should be met when the tank will be used for the transport of dangerous goods.

2.3 Portable tanks should not be offered for shipment in an ullage condition liable to produce an unacceptable hydraulic force due to surge within the tank.

2.4 Portable tanks for the transport of dangerous goods should be certified in accordance with the provisions of the IMDG Code by the competent approval authority or a body authorized by that authority.

3 Portable tank arrangements

3.1 The external stabilizing members of a portable tank may consist of skids or cradles and, in addition, the tank may be secured to a platform-based container. Alternatively, a tank may be fixed within a framework of ISO or non-ISO frame dimensions.

3.2 Portable tank arrangements should include fittings for lifting and securing on board.

Note: All types of the aforementioned portable tanks may be carried on multipurpose ships but need special attention for lashing and securing on board.

4 Cargo information

4.1 The master should be provided with at least the following information:

4.1.1 dimensions of the portable tank and commodity if non-dangerous and, if dangerous, the information required in accordance with the IMDG Code;

4.1.2 the gross mass of the portable tank; and

4.1.3 whether the portable tank is permanently secured onto a platform-based container or in a frame and whether securing points are provided.

5 Stowage

5.1 The typical distribution of accelerations of the ship should be borne in mind in deciding whether the portable tank will be stowed on or under deck.

5.2 Tanks should be stowed in the fore-and-aft direction on or under deck.

5.3 Tanks should be stowed so that they do not extend over the ship’s side.

5.4 Tanks should be stowed so as to permit safe access for personnel in the necessary operation of the ship.

5.5 At no time should the tanks overstress the deck or hatches; the hatchcovers should be so secured to the ship that tipping of the entire hatchcover is prevented.

6 Securing against sliding and tipping

6.1 Non-standardized portable tanks

6.1.1 The securing devices on non-standardized portable tanks and on the ship should be arranged in such a way as to withstand the transverse and longitudinal forces, which may give rise to sliding and tipping. The lashing angles against sliding should not be higher than 25° and against tipping not lower than 45° to 60° (figure 1).

Figure 1 - Securing of portable tanks with favourable lashing angles


6.1.2 Whenever necessary, timber should be used between the deck surface and the bottom structure of the portable tank in order to increase friction. This does not apply to tanks on wooden units or with similar bottom material having a high coefficient of friction.

6.1.3 If stowage under deck is permitted, the stowage should be such that the portable non-standardized tank can be landed directly on its place and bedding.

6.1.4 Securing points on the tank should be of adequate strength and clearly marked.

Note- Securing points designed for road and rail transport may not be suitable for transport by sea.

6.1.5 Lashings attached to tanks without securing points should pass around the tank and both ends of the lashing should be secured to the same side of the tank (figure 2).



Figure 2 - Securing of portable tanks having no securing points

6.1.6 Sufficient securing devices should be arranged in such a way that each device takes its share of the load with an adequate factor of safety.

6.1.7 The structural strength of the deck or hatch components should be taken into consideration when tanks are carried thereon and when locating and affixing the securing devices.

6.1.8 Portable tanks should be secured in such a manner that no load is imposed on the tank or fittings in excess of those for which they have been designed.

6.2 Standardized portable tanks (tank-containers)

6.2.1 Standardized portable tanks with ISO frame dimensions should be secured according to the system of lashing with which the ship is equipped, taking into consideration the height of the tank above the deck and the ullage in the tank.


7 Maintenance of securing arrangements

7.1 The integrity of the securing arrangements should be maintained throughout the voyage.

7.2 Particular attention should be paid to the need for tight lashings, grips and clips to prevent weakening through chafing.

7.3 Lashings should be regularly checked and retightened.

Annex 3
Safe stowage and securing of portable receptacles


1 Introduction

1.1 A portable receptacle, in the context of these guidelines means a receptacle not being a portable tank, which is not permanently secured on board the ship and has a capacity of 1,000 l or less and has different dimensions in length, width, height and shape and which is used for the transport of gases or liquids.

2 Portable receptacles can be divided into:

2.1 cylinders of different dimensions without securing points and having a capacity not exceeding 150 l;

2.2 receptacles of different dimensions with the exception of cylinders in conformity with 2.l having a capacity of not less than 100 l and not more than 1,000 l and whether or not fitted with hoisting devices of sufficient strength; and

2.3 assemblies, known as "frames", of cylinders in conformity with 2.1, the cylinders being interconnected by a manifold within the frame and held firmly together by metal fittings. The frames are equipped with securing and handling devices of sufficient strength (e.g. cylindrical receptacles are equipped with rolling hoops and receptacles are secured on skids).

3 Cargo information

3.1 The master should be provided with at least the following information:

3.1.1 dimensions of the receptacle and commodity if non-dangerous and, if dangerous, the information as required in accordance with the IMDG Code;

3.1.2 gross mass of the receptacles; and

3.1.3 whether or not the receptacles are equipped with hoisting devices of sufficient strength.

Note: Where in this annex the term receptacle is used, it is meant to include both receptacles and cylinders.

4 Stowage

4.1 The typical distribution of accelerations of the ship should be borne in mind in deciding whether the receptacles should be stowed on or under deck.

4.2 The receptacles should preferably be stowed in the fore-and-aft direction on or under deck.

4.3 Receptacles should be dunnaged to prevent their resting directly on a steel deck. They should be stowed and chocked as necessary to prevent movement unless mounted in a frame as a unit. Receptacles for liquefied gases should be stowed in an upright position.


4.4 When the receptacles are stowed in an upright position, they should be stowed in a block, cribbed or boxed in with suitable and sound timber. The box or crib should be dunnaged underneath to provide clearance from a steel deck. The receptacles in a box or crib should be braced to prevent movement. The box or crib should be securely chocked and lashed to prevent movement in any direction.

5 Securing against sliding and shifting

5.1 Cylinders

Cylinders should be stowed fore-and-aft on athwartships dunnage. Where practicable, the stow should be secured by using two or more wires, laid athwartships prior to loading, and passed around the stow to securing points on opposite sides. The wires are tightened to make a compact stow by using appropriate tightening devices. During loading, wedges may be necessary to prevent cylinders rolling.

5.2 Cylinders in containers

Cylinders should, whenever practicable, be stowed upright with their valves on top and with their protective caps firmly in place. Cylinders should be adequately secured, so as to withstand the rigours of the intended voyage, by means of steel strapping or equivalent means led to lashing points on the container floor. When cylinders cannot be stowed upright in a closed container, they should be carried in an open top or a platform-based container.

5.3 Receptacles

Securing of receptacles stowed on or under deck should be as follows:

5.3.1 lashings should be positioned as shown in figure 1;

5.3.2 where possible, the hoisting devices on receptacles should be used to lash them; and

5.3.3 at regular times the lashings should be checked and retightened.


Figure 1 - Securing of receptacles having no securing points

Annex 4
Safe stowage and securing of wheel-based (rolling) cargoes


1 Introduction

Wheel-based cargoes, in the context of these guidelines, are all cargoes which are provided with wheels or tracks, including those which are used for the stowage and transport of other cargoes, except trailers and roadtrains, but including buses, military vehicles with or without tracks, tractors, earth-moving equipment, rolltrailers, etc.

2 General recommendations

2.1 The cargo spaces in which wheel-based cargo is to be stowed should be dry, clean and free from grease and oil.

2.2 Wheel-based cargoes should be provided with adequate and clearly marked securing points or other equivalent means of sufficient strength to which lashings may be applied.

2.3 Wheel-based cargoes which are not provided with securing points should have those places where lashings may be applied, clearly marked.

2.4 Wheel-based cargoes, which are not provided with rubber wheels or tracks with friction-increasing lower surfaces, should always be stowed on wooden dunnage or other friction-increasing material such as soft boards, rubber mats, etc.

2.5 When in stowage position, the brakes of a wheel-based unit, if so equipped, should be set.

2.6 Wheel-based cargoes should be secured to the ship by lashings made of material having strength and elongation characteristics at least equivalent to steel chain or wire.

2.7 Where possible, wheel-based cargoes, carried as part cargo, should be stowed close to the ship's side or in stowage positions which are provided with sufficient securing points of sufficient strength, or be blockstowed from side to side of the cargo space.

2.8 To prevent any lateral shifting of wheel-based cargoes not provided with adequate securing points, such cargoes should, where practicable, be stowed close to the ship's side and close to each other, or be blocked off by other suitable cargo units such as loaded containers, etc.

2.9 To prevent the shifting of wheel-based cargoes, it is, where practicable, preferable to stow those cargoes in a fore-and-aft direction rather than athwartships. If wheel-based cargoes are inevitably stowed athwartships, additional securing of sufficient strength may be necessary.

2.10 The wheels of wheel-based cargoes should be blocked to prevent shifting.

2.11 Cargoes stowed on wheel-based units should be adequately secured to stowage platforms or, where provided with suitable means, to its sides. Any movable external components attached to a wheel-based unit, such as derricks, arms or turrets should be adequately locked or secured in position.

Annex 5
Safe stowage and securing of heavy cargo items such as locomotives, transformers, etc.


1 Cargo information

The master should be provided with sufficient information on any heavy cargo offered for shipment so that he can properly plan its stowage and securing; the information should at least include the following:

1.1 gross mass;

1.2 principal dimensions with drawings or pictorial descriptions, if possible;

1.3 location of the centre of gravity;

1.4 bedding areas and particular bedding precautions if applicable;

1.5 lifting points or slinging positions; and

1.6 securing points, where provided, including details of their strength.

2 Location of stowage

2.1 When considering the location for stowing a heavy cargo item, the typical distribution of accelerations on the ship should be kept in mind:

2.1.1 lower accelerations occur in the midship sections and below the weather deck; and

2.1.2 higher accelerations occur in the end sections and above the weather deck.

2.2 When heavy items are to be stowed on deck, the expected “weather side” of the particular voyage should be taken into account if possible.

2.3 Heavy items should preferably be stowed in the fore-and-aft direction.

3 Distribution of weight

The weight of the item should be distributed in such a way as to avoid undue stress on the ship's structure. Particularly with the carriage of heavy items on decks or hatch covers, suitable beams of timber or steel of adequate strength should be used to transfer the weight of the item onto the ship's structure.

4 Cargo stowed in open containers, on platforms or platform-based containers

4.1 While the stowage and securing of open containers, ISO platforms or platform-based containers (flatracks) on a containership or a ship fitted or adapted for the carriage of containers should follow the information for that system, the stowage and securing of the cargo in such containers should be carried out in accordance with the IMO/ILO Guidelines for Packing Cargo in Freight Containers or Vehicles.

4.2 When heavy cargo items are carried on ISO platforms or platform-based containers (flatracks) the provisions of this annex should be followed. Additionally, the following items should be taken into account:

4.2.1 The ISO standard platform, etc., used should be of a suitable type with regard to strength and MSL of the securing points.

4.2.2 The weight of the heavy cargo item should be properly distributed.

4.2.3 Where deemed necessary, the heavy cargo item(s) carried on ISO standard platform(s) or platform-based containers, etc., should not only be secured to the platform(s) or platform-based containers, etc., but also to neighbouring platform(s), etc., or to securing points located at fixed structure of the ship. The elasticity of the last-mentioned lashings should be sufficiently in line with the overall elasticity of the stowage block underneath the heavy cargo item(s) in order to avoid overloading those lashings.

5 Securing against sliding and tipping

5.1 Whenever possible, timber should be used between the stowage surface and the bottom of the unit in order to increase friction. This does not apply to items on wooden cradles or on rubber tyres or with similar bottom material having a high coefficient of friction.

5.2 The securing devices should be arranged in a way to withstand transverse and longitudinal forces which may give rise to sliding or tipping.

5.3 The optimum lashing angle against sliding is about 25°, while the optimum lashing angle against tipping is generally found between 45° and 60° (figure 1).


Figure 1 - Principles of securing heavy items against sliding and tipping

5.4 If a heavy cargo item has been dragged into position on greased skid boards or other means to reduce friction, the number of lashings used to prevent sliding should be increased accordingly.

5.5 If, owing to circumstances, lashings can be set at large angles only, sliding must be prevented by timber shoring, welded fittings or other appropriate means. Any welding should be carried out in accordance with accepted hot work procedures.

6 Securing against heavy seas on deck

Whilst it is recognized that securing cargo items against heavy seas on deck is difficult, all efforts should be made to secure such items and their supports to withstand such impact and special means of securing may have to be considered.

7 Heavy cargo items projecting over the ship's side

Items projecting over the ship's side should be additionally secured by lashings acting in longitudinal and vertical directions.

8 Attachment of lashings to heavy cargo items

8.1 If lashings are to be attached to securing points on the item, these securing points should be of adequate strength and clearly marked. It should be borne in mind that securing points designed for road or rail transport may not be suitable for securing the items on board ship.

8.2 Lashings attached to items without securing points should pass around the item, or a rigid part thereof, and both ends of the lashing should be secured to the same side of the unit (figure 2).



Figure 2 - Principle of securing heavy items having no suitable securing points

9 Composition and application of securing devices

9.1 Securing devices should be assembled so that each component is of equal strength.

9.2 Connecting elements and tightening devices should be used in the correct way. Consideration should be given to any reduction of the strength of the lashings during the voyage through corrosion, fatigue or mechanical deterioration and should be compensated by using stronger securing material.
9.3 Particular attention should be paid to the correct use of wire, grips and clips. The saddle portion of the clip should be applied to the live load segment and the U bolt to the dead or shortened end segment.

9.4 Securing devices should be arranged in such a way that each device takes its share of load according to its strength.

9.5 Mixed securing arrangements of devices with different strength and elongation characteristics should be avoided.

10 Maintenance of securing arrangements

10.1 The integrity of the securing arrangements should be maintained throughout the voyage.

10.2 Particular attention should be paid to the need for tight lashings, grips and clips and to prevent weakening through chafing. Timber cradles, beddings and shorings should be checked.

10.3 Greasing the thread of clips and turnbuckles increases their holding capacity and prevents corrosion.

11 Securing calculation

11.1 Where necessary, the securing arrangements for heavy cargo items should be verified by an appropriate calculation in accordance with annex 13 to the CSS Code (sub-chapter 3.2 of this manual).

Annex 6
Safe stowage and securing of coiled sheet steel


1 General

1.1 This annex deals only with coiled sheet steel stowed on the round. Vertical stowage is not dealt with because this type of stowage does not create any special securing problems.

1.2 Normally, coils of sheet steel have a gross mass in excess of 10 tonnes each.

2 Coils

2.1 Coils should be given bottom stow and, whenever possible, be stowed in regular tiers from side to side of the ship.

2.2 Coils should be stowed on dunnage laid athwartships. Coils should be stowed with their axes in the fore and aft direction. Each coil should be stowed against its neighbour. Wedges should be used as stoppers when necessary during loading and discharging to prevent shifting (figures 1 and 2).

2.3 The final coil in each row should normally rest on the two adjacent coils. The mass of this coil will lock the other coils in the row.

2.4 If it is necessary to load a second tier over the first, then the coils should be stowed in between the coils of the first tier (figure 2).

2.5 Any void space between coils in the topmost tier should be adequately secured (figure 3).

Figure 1 Principle of dunnaging and wedging coils



Figure 2 - Inserting of locking coils



Figure 3 - Shoring and chocking in voids between coils

3 Lashings

3.1 The objective is to form one large, immovable block of coils in the hold by lashing them together. In general, strip coils in three end rows in the top tier should be lashed. To prevent fore and aft shifting in the top tier of bare wound coils group lashing should not be applied due to their fragile nature; the end row of a top tier should be secured by dun¬nage and wires, which are to be tightened from side to side, and by additional wires to the bulkhead. When coils are fully loaded over the entire bottom space and are well shored, no lashings are required except for locking coils (figures 4, 5, and 6).






Figure 6 Securing of end row in top tier against fore and aft shifting (view from top)

3.2 The lashings can be of a conventional type using wire, steel band or any equivalent means.

3.3 Conventional lashings should consist of wires having sufficient tensile strength. The first tier should be chocked. It should be possible to retighten the lashings during the voyage (figures 5 and 6).

3.4 Wire lashings should be protected against damage from sharp edges.

3.5 If there are few coils, or a single coil only, they should be adequately secured to the ship, by placing them in cradles, by wedging, or by shoring and then lashing to prevent transverse and longitudinal movement.

3.6 Coils carried in containers, railway wagons and road vehicles should be stowed in cradles or specially made beds and should be prevented from moving by adequate securing.


Annex 7
Safe stowage and securing of heavy metal products


1 General

1.1 Heavy metal products in the context of this Code include any heavy item made of metal, such as bars, pipes, rods, plates, wire coils, etc.

1.2 The transport of heavy metal products by sea exposes the ship to the following principal hazards:

1.2.1 overstressing of the ship's structure if the permissible hull stress or permissible deck loading is exceeded;

1.2.2 overstressing of the ship's structure as a result of a short roll period caused by excessive metacentric height; and

1.2.3 cargo shifting because of inadequate securing resulting in a loss of stability or damage to the hull or both.

2 Recommendations

2.1 The cargo spaces in which heavy metal products are to be stowed should be clean, dry and free from grease and oil.

2.2 The cargo should be so distributed as to avoid undue hull stress.

2.3 The permissible deck and tank top loading should not be exceeded.

2.4 The following measures should be taken when stowing and securing heavy metal products:

2.4.1 cargo items should be stowed compactly from one side of the ship to the other leaving no voids between them and using timber blocks between items if necessary;

2.4.2 cargo should be stowed level whenever possible and practicable;

2.4.3 the surface of the cargo should be secured; and

2.4.4 the shoring should be made of strong, non splintering wood and adequately sized to withstand the acceleration forces. One shoring should be applied to every frame of the ship but at intervals of not less than 1 m.

2.5 In the case of thin plates and small parcels, alternate fore and aft and athwartships stowage has proved satisfactory. The friction should be increased by using sufficient dry dunnage or other material between the different layers.

2.6 Pipes, rails, rolled sections, billets, etc., should be stowed in the fore and aft direction to avoid damage to the sides of the ship if the cargo shifts.

2.7 The cargo, and especially the topmost layer, can be secured by:

2.7.1 having other cargo stowed on top of it; or

2.7.2 lashing by wire, chocking off or similar means.

2.8 Whenever heavy metal products are not stowed from side to side of the ship, special care should be taken to secure such stowages adequately.

2.9 Whenever the surface of the cargo is to be secured, the lashings should be independent of each other, exert vertical pressure on the surface of the cargo, and be so positioned that no part of the cargo is unsecured.

3 Wire coils

3.1 Wire coils should be stowed flat so that each coil rests against an adjacent coil . The coils in successive tiers should be stowed so that each coil overlaps the coils below.

3.2 Wire coils should be tightly stowed together and substantial securing arrangements should be used. Where voids between coils are unavoidable or where there are voids at the sides or ends of the cargo space, the stow should be adequately secured.

3.3 When securing wire coils stowed on their sides in several layers like barrels, it is essential to remember that, unless the top layer is secured, the coils lying in the stow can be forced out of the stow by the coils below on account of the ship's motions.


Annex 8
Safe stowage and securing of anchor chains


1 General

1.1 Anchor chains for ships and offshore structures are usually carried in bundles or in continuous lengths.

1.2 Provided certain safety measures are followed prior to, during and after stowage, anchor chains may be lowered directly onto the place of stowage in bundles without further handling, or stowed longitudinally either along the ship's entire cargo space or part thereof.

1.3 If the cargo plans given in the ship's documentation contain no specific requirements, the cargo should be distributed over the lower hold and 'tween-decks in such a way that stability values thus obtained will guarantee adequate stability.

2 Recommendations

2.1 Cargo spaces in which chains are stowed should be clean and free from oil and grease.

2.2 Chains should only be stowed on surfaces which are permanently covered either by wooden ceiling or by sufficient layers of dunnage or other suitable friction increasing materials. Chains should never be stowed directly on metal surfaces.

3 Stowage and securing of chains in bundles

3.1 Chains in bundles, which are lifted directly onto their place of stowage without further handling, should be left with their lifting wires attached and should preferably be provided with additional wires around the bundles for lashing purposes.

3.2 It is not necessary to separate layers of chain with friction increasing material such as dunnage because chain bundles will grip each other. The top layer of chain bundles should be secured to both sides of the ship by suitable lashings. Bundles may be lashed independently or in a group, using the lifting wires.

4 Stowage and securing of chains which are stowed longitudinally

4.1 Stowage of each layer of chain should, whenever possible and practicable, commence and terminate close to the ship's side. Care should be taken to achieve a tight stow.

4.2 It is not necessary to separate layers of chain with friction increasing material such as dunnage because chain layers will grip each other.

4.3 Bearing in mind the expected weather and sea conditions, the length and nature of the voyage and the nature of the cargo to be stowed on top of the chain, the top layer of each stow should be secured by lashings of adequate strength crossing the stow at suitable intervals and thus holding down the entire stow.

Annex 9
Safe stowage and securing of metal scrap in bulk


1 Introduction

1.1 This annex deals with the stowage of metal scrap which is difficult to stow compactly because of its size, shape and mass, but does not apply to metal scrap such as metal borings, shavings or turnings, the carriage of which is addressed by the Code of Safe Practice for Solid Bulk Cargoes.

1.2 The hazards involved in transporting metal scrap include:

1.2.1 shifting of the stow which in turn can cause a list;

1.2.2 shifting of individual heavy pieces which can rupture the side plating below the waterline and give rise to serious flooding;

1.2.3 excessive loading on tank tops or 'tween decks; and

1.2.4 violent rolling caused by excessive metacentric height.

2 Recommendations

2.1 Before loading, the lower battens of the spar ceiling should be protected by substantial dunnage to reduce damage and to prevent heavy and sharp pieces of scrap coming in contact with the ship's side plating. Air and sounding pipes, and bilge and ballast lines protected only by wooden boards, should be similarly protected.

2.2 When loading, care should be taken to ensure that the first loads are not dropped from a height which could damage the tank tops.

2.3 If light and heavy scrap is to be stowed in the same cargo space, the heavy scrap should be loaded first. Scrap should never be stowed on top of metal turnings, or similar forms of waste metal.

2.4 Scrap should be compactly and evenly stowed with no voids or unsupported faces of loosely held scrap.

2.5 Heavy pieces of scrap, which could cause damage to the side plating or end bulkheads if they were to move, should be overstowed or secured by suitable lashings. The use of shoring is unlikely to be effective because of the nature of the scrap.

2.6 Care should be taken to avoid excessive loading on tank tops and decks,

Annex 10
Safe stowage and securing of flexible intermediate bulk containers


1 Introduction

1.1 A flexible intermediate bulk container (FIBC), in the context of these guidelines, means a flexible portable packaging to be used for the trans¬port of solids with a capacity of not more than 3 m³ (3,000 l) designed for mechanical handling and tested for its satisfactory resistance to trans¬port and transport stresses in a one way type or multi purpose design.

2 Cargo information

The master should at least be provided with the following information:

2.1 the total number of FIBCs and the commodity to be loaded;

2.2 the dimensions of the FIBCs;

2.3 the total gross mass of the FIBCs;

2.4 one way type or multi purpose design; and

2.5 the kind of hoisting (one hook or more hooks to be used).

3 Recommendations

3.1 The ideal ship for the carriage of FIBCs is one with wide hatches so that the FIBCs can be landed directly in the stowage positions without the need for shifting.

3.2 The cargo spaces should, where practicable, be rectangular in shape and free of obstructions.

3.3 The stowage space should be clean, dry and free from oil and nails.

3.4 When FIBCs have to be stowed in deep hatch wings, easy access and sufficient manoeuvring space for suitably adapted fork lift trucks should be available.

3.5 When FIBCs are stowed in the hatchway only, the space in the wings and the forward and aft end of the cargo space should be loaded with other suitable cargo or blocked off in such a way that the FIBCs are adequately supported.

4 Stowage

4.1 The typical distribution of the accelerations of the ship should be kept in mind when FIBCs are loaded.

4.2 The width of the ship divided by the width of the FIBC will give the number of FIBCs which can be stowed athwartships and the void space left. If there will be a void space, the stowage of the FIBCs should start from both sides to the centre, so that any void space will be in the centre of the hatchway.

4.3 FIBCs should be stowed as close as possible against each other and any void space should be chocked off.
4.4 The next layers should be stowed in a similar way so that the FIBCs fully cover the FIBCs underneath. If in this layer a void space is left, it should also be chocked off in the centre of the hatchway.

4.5 When there is sufficient room in the hatchway on top of the layers underneath to stow another layer, it should be established whether the coamings can be used as bulkheads. If not, measures should be taken to prevent the FIBCs shifting to the open space in the wings. Otherwise, the FIBCs should be stowed from one coaming to another. In both cases any void space should be in the centre and should be chocked off.

4.6 Chocking off is necessary in all cases to prevent shifting of the FIBCs to either side and to prevent a list of the ship developing in rough weather (figure 1).

5 Securing

5.1 In cases where only a part of a 'tween deck or lower hold is used for the stowage of FIBCs, measures should be taken to prevent the FIBCs from shifting. These measures should include sufficient gratings or plywood sheets placed against the FIBCs and the use of wire lashings from side to side to secure the FIBC cargo.

5.2 The wire lashings and plywood sheets used for securing should be regularly checked, in particular before and after rough weather, and retightened if necessary.

Figure 1 - Stowage of FIBCs with chocked void spaces in the centre of the stowage area

Annex 11
General guidelines for the under deck stowage of logs


1 Introduction

The purpose of this annex is to recommend safe practices for the under-deck stowage of logs and other operational safety measures designed to ensure the safe transport of such cargoes.

2 Prior to loading:

2.1 each cargo space configuration (length, breadth and depth), the cubic bale capacity of the respective cargo spaces, the various lengths of logs to be loaded, the cubic volume (log average), and the capacity of the gear to be used to load the logs should be determined;

2.2 using the above information, a pre stow plan should be developed to allow the maximum utilization of the available space; the better the under deck stowage, the more cargo can safely be carried on deck;

2.3 the cargo spaces and related equipment should be examined to determine whether the condition of structural members, framework and equipment could affect the safe carriage of the log cargo. Any damage discovered during such an examination should be repaired in an appropriate manner;

2.4 the bilge suction screens should be examined to ensure they are clean, effective and properly maintained to prevent the admission of debris into the bilge piping system;

2.5 the bilge wells should be free of extraneous material such as wood bark and wood splinters;

2.6 the capacity of the bilge pumping system should be ascertained. A properly maintained and operating system is crucial for the safety of the ship. A portable dewatering pump of sufficient capacity and lift will provide additional insurance against a clogged bilge line;

2.7 side sparring, pipe guards, etc., designed to protect internal hull members should be in place; and

2.8 the master should ensure that the opening and closing of any high ballast dump valves are properly recorded in the ship's log. Given that such high ballast tanks are necessary to facilitate loading and bearing in mind regulation 22(1) of the International Convention on Load Lines, 1966, which requires a screw down valve fitted in gravity overboard drain lines, the master should ensure that the dump valves are properly monitored to preclude the accidental readmission of water into these tanks. Leaving these tanks open to the sea could lead to an apparent inexplicable list, a shift of deck cargo and potential capsize.

3 During loading operations:

3.1 each lift of logs should be hoisted aboard the ship in close proximity to the ship to minimise any potential swinging of the lift;


3.2 the possibility of damage to the ship and the safety of those who work in the cargo spaces should be considered. The logs should not be swinging when lowered into the space. The hatch coaming should be used, as necessary, to eliminate any swinging of the logs by gently resting the load against the inside of the coaming, or on it, prior to lowering;

3.3 the logs should be stowed compactly, thereby eliminating as many voids as is practicable. The amount and the vertical centre of gravity of the logs stowed under deck will govern the amount of cargo that can be safely stowed on deck. In considering this principle, the heaviest logs should be loaded first into the cargo spaces;

3.4 logs should generally be stowed compactly in a fore and aft direction, with the longer lengths towards the forward and aft areas of the space. If there is a void in the space between the fore and aft lengths it should be filled with logs stowed athwartships so as to fill in the void across the breadth of the spaces as completely as the length of the logs permits;

3.5 where the logs in the spaces can only be stowed fore and aft in one length, any remaining void forward or aft should be filled with logs stowed athwartships so as to fill in the void across the breadth of the space as completely as the length of the logs permits;

3.6 athwartship voids should be filled tier by tier as loading progresses;

3.7 butt ends of the logs should be alternately reversed to achieve a more level stowage, except where excess sheer on the inner bottom is encountered;

3.8 extreme pyramiding of logs should be avoided to the greatest extent possible. If the breadth of the space is greater than the breadth of the hatch opening, pyramiding may be avoided by sliding fore and aft loaded logs into the ends of the port and starboard sides of the space. This sliding of logs into the ends of the port and starboard sides of the space should commence early in the loading process (after reaching a height of approximately 2 m above the inner bottom) and should continue throughout the loading process;

3.9 it may be necessary to use loose tackle to manoeuvre heavy logs into the under deck areas clear of the hatchways. Blocks, purchases and other loose tackle should be attached to suitably reinforced fixtures such as eyebolts or padeyes provided for this purpose. However, if this procedure is followed, care should be taken to avoid overloading the gear;

3.10 a careful watch by ship's personnel should be maintained throughout the loading to ensure no structural damage occurs. Any damage which affects the seaworthiness of the ship should be repaired;

3.11 when the logs are stowed to a height of about 1 m below the forward or aft athwartship hatch coaming, the size of the lift of logs should be reduced to facilitate stowing of the remaining area; and

3.12 logs in the hatch coaming area should be stowed as compactly as possible to maximum capacity.

4 After loading

4.1 After loading, the ship should be thoroughly examined to ascertain its structural condition, bilges should be sounded to verify the ship's watertight integrity

5 During the voyage:

5.1 the ship's heeling angle and rolling period should be checked, in a seaway, on a regular basis;

5.2 wedges, wastes, hammers and portable pump, if provided should be stored in an easily accessible place; and

5.3 the master or a responsible officer should ensure that it is safe to enter an enclosed cargo space by:

5.3.1 ensuring that the space has been thoroughly ventilated by natural or mechanical means;

5.3.2 testing the atmosphere of the space at different levels for oxygen deficiency and harmful vapour where suitable instruments are available; and

5.3.3 requiring self contained breathing apparatus to be worn by all persons entering the space where there is any doubt as to the adequacy of ventilation or testing before entry.




Annex 12
Safe stowage and securing of unit loads


1 Introduction

Unit load for the purposes of this annex means that a number of packages are either:

1.1 placed or stacked, and secured by strapping, shrink wrapping or other suitable means, on a load board such as a pallet; or

1.2 placed in a protective outer packaging such as a pallet box; or

1.3 permanently secured together in a sling.

Note: A single large package such as a portable tank or receptacle, intermediate bulk container or freight container is excluded from the recommendations of this annex

2 Cargo information

The master should be provided with at least the following information:

2.1 the total number of unit loads and commodity to be loaded;

2.2 the type of strapping or wrapping used;

2.3 the dimensions of a unit load in metres;

2.4 the gross mass of a unit load in kilogrammes; and

2.5 relevant examination certificates for pre-slung slings around cargo units. The slings should be identified by specific means, e.g. colour coding, batch numbers or otherwise.

3 Recommendations

3.1 The cargo spaces of the ship in which unit loads will be stowed should be clean, dry and free from oil and grease.

3.2 The decks, including the tank top, should be flush all over.

3.3 The cargo spaces should preferably be of a rectangular shape, horizontally and vertically. Cargo spaces of another shape in forward holds or in 'tween decks should be transformed into a rectangular shape both athwartships and longitudinally by the use of suitable timber (figure 1).

4 Stowage

4.1 The unit loads should be stowed in such a way that securing, if needed, can be performed on all sides of the stow.


Figure 1 Stowage and chocking of unit loads in a tapered stowage area (view from top)

4.2 The unit loads should be stowed without any void space between the loads and the ship's sides to prevent the unit loads from racking.

4.3 When unit loads have to be stowed on top of each other, attention should be paid to the strength of pallets and the shape and the condition of the unit loads.

4.4 Precautions should be taken when unit loads are mechanically handled to avoid damaging the unit loads.

5 Securing

Block stowage should be ensured and no void space be left between the unit loads.

6 Securing when stowed athwartships

6.1 When unit loads are stowed in a lower hold or in a 'tween deck against a bulkhead from side to side, gratings or plywood sheets should be positioned vertically against the stack of the unit loads. Wire lashings should be fitted from side to side keeping the gratings or plywood sheets tight against the stow.

6.2 Additionally, lashing wires can be fitted at different spacing from the bulkhead over the stow to the horizontally placed wire lashings in order to further tighten the stow.


7 Stowage in a wing of a cargo space and free at two sides

When unit loads are stowed in the forward or after end of a cargo space and the possibility of shifting in two directions exists, gratings or plywood sheets should be positioned vertically to the stack faces of the unit loads of the non secured sides of the stow. Wire lashings should be taken around the stow from the wings to the bulkhead. Where the wires can damage the unit loads (particularly on the corners of the stow), gratings or plywood sheets should be positioned in such a way that no damage can occur on corners.

8 Stowage free at three sides

When unit loads are stowed against the ship's sides in such a way that shifting is possible from three sides, gratings or plywood sheets should be positioned vertically against the stack faces of the unit loads. Special attention should be paid to the corners of the stow to prevent damage to the unit loads by the wire lashings. Wire lashing at different heights should tighten the stow together with the gratings or plywood sheets at the sides (figure 2).


Figure 2 Securing of units stowed at the ship's side

Note: Lashings must not place a sideways load on the frame/stiffener

9 General

9.1 Instead of gratings or plywood sheets, other possibilities are the use of aluminium stanchions or battens of sufficient strength.

9.2 During the voyage the wire lashings should be regularly inspected and slack wires should be retightened if necessary. In particular, after rough weather, wire lashings should be checked and retightened if necessary.


3.4 Supplementary requirements for ro-ro ships
Note: This sub-chapter is applicable to all new and existing ro-ro ships.
3.4.1 The manual should contain sketches showing the layout of the fixed securing devices with identification of strength (MSL) as well as longitudinal and transverse distances between securing points. In preparing this sub-chapter further guidance should be utilized from IMO Assembly resolutions A.533(13) and A.581(14) as appropriate.
A plan showing the layout and location of the fixed cargo securing devices is contained within Appendix 1C at the back of the Manual.
Appropriate extracts from IMO Assembly resolutions A.533(13) and A.581(14) are included below.
Note: Guidance should also be utilised from the United Kingdom Code of Practice for Roll-On/Roll-Off Ships: Stowage and Securing of Vehicles.
3.4.2 In designing securing arrangements for cargo units, including vehicles and containers, on ro-ro passenger ships and specifying minimum strength requirements for securing devices used, forces due to the motion of the ship, angle of heel after damage or flooding and other considerations relevant to the effectiveness of the cargo securing arrangement should be taken into account.
Notes: 3.4.2 above has been included in accordance with 1995 SOLAS Conference Resolution 13 which urged the Maritime Safety Committee to include, in the provisions to be incorporated in the Cargo Securing Manual, minimum strength requirements for equipment used for securing cargo units, including vehicles and containers on ro-ro ships, taking into account forces due to motion of the ship, angle of heel after damage or flooding and other considerations relevant to the strength of the cargo securing arrangements.
Further, the Report of the DSC 1 Sub-Committee section 15.18 stated that detailed technical advice would be required in order to provide the appropriate guidelines.
In response to requests from a number of Administrations and as part of IACS’ commitment to a unified approach to the approval of Cargo Securing Manuals, a Team of IACS Experts was formed to investigate the consequences of Resolution 13.
The conclusion reached was that provided Appendix 4 (IMO Assembly resolution A.581(14)) and Annex 13 (1994/1995 Amendments) of the Code of Safe Practice for Cargo Stowage and Securing are complied with, then the securing arrangements of cargo and vehicles, excluding the vehicle structure or cargo on or within vehicles, should prove adequate on a ro-ro ship in the damaged and heeled condition.
The Team expressed concern that structure of vehicles and cargo loaded on or within vehicles may not prove adequate under such conditions unless the criteria used in the Code are extended to cover these components and the Maritime Safety Committee may wish to consider this in conjunction with other Organisations involved in road transport.

Elements to be taken into account when considering the safe stowage and securing of cargo units and vehicles in ships
1 General elements

1.1 It is of the utmost importance to ensure that:

1 cargo units including vehicles intended for the carriage of cargo in sea transport are in sound structural condition and have an adequate number of securing points of sufficient strength so that they can be satisfactorily secured to the ship. Vehicles should, in addition, be provided with an effective braking system; and

2 cargo units and vehicles are provided with an adequate number of securing points to enable the cargo to be adequately secured on the cargo unit or vehicle so as to withstand the forces, in particular the transverse forces, which may arise during the sea transport.

2 Number and strength of securing points

2.1 In considering the number and strength of the securing points and items of cargo securing gear to be used, the following elements should be taken into account:

1 duration of the voyage;
2 geographical area of the voyage;
3 sea conditions which may be expected;
4 size, design and characteristics of the ship;
5 dynamic forces under adverse weather conditions;
6 types of cargo units and vehicles to be carried;
7 intended stowage pattern of the cargo units and vehicles; and
8 weight of cargo units and vehicles.

2.2 This Cargo Securing Manual provides information on the characteristics of cargo securing items and their correct application.

2.3 Ship’s mobile cargo handling equipment not fixed to the ship should be provided with adequate securing points.

3 Elements to be considered by the Master

3.1 When accepting cargo units or vehicles for shipment and having taken into account the elements listed in paragraph 3.4.3.1 above, the master should be satisfied that:

1 all decks intended for the stowage of cargo units including vehicles are so far as is practicable free from oil and grease;

2 cargo units including vehicles are in an apparent good order and condition suitable for sea transport particularly with a view to their being secured;

3 the ship has on board an adequate supply of cargo securing gear which is maintained in sound working condition;

4 cargo units including vehicles are adequately stowed on and secured to the cargo unit or vehicle;

5 where practicable, cargoes are adequately stored on and secured to the cargo unit and vehicle.

3.2 Steel plates, girders and laminated boards will, if not properly secured, readily slide and may penetrate the sides of a freight vehicle or container. Such items require strong securing arrangements. They should be located in positions where they can do the least damage to the ship’s internal structure and fittings if the securing arrangement fails.

3.3 Pipes, cylinders and similarly shaped units of cargo require special attention. One of the most successful methods of securing is the use of a pipe-rack, nesting frame, or cradle in association with chain lashings and tightening devices.

3.4 Where there is doubt that a vehicle complies with the foregoing provisions, the master may, at his discretion, refuse to accept the vehicle for shipment.

3.5 Vehicles with high centres of gravity or unstable loads should, where possible, be stowed in positions of minimal roll.

3.6 In addition, cargo spaces should be regularly inspected to ensure that the cargo, cargo units and vehicles remain safely secured throughout the voyage.

Guidelines for Securing arrangements for the transport of road vehicles on ro-ro ships
1 Application
These Guidelines apply to ro-ro ships which regularly carry road vehicles on either long or short international voyages in unsheltered waters.

2 Lashings

The maximum securing load (MSL) of lashings should be not less than 100kN, and they should be made of material having suitable elongation characteristics.

Lashings should be so designed and attached that, provided there is safe access, it is possible to tighten them if they become slack. Where practicable and necessary, the lashings should be examined at regular intervals during the voyage and tightened as necessary.

Lashings should be attached to the securing points with hooks or other devices so designed that they cannot disengage from the aperture of the securing point if the lashing slackens during the voyage.

Only one lashing should be attached to any one aperture of the securing point on the vehicle.

Lashings should only be attached to the securing points provided for that purpose.

Lashings should be attached to the securing points on the vehicle in such a way that the angle between the lashing and the horizontal and vertical planes lies preferably between 30° and 60°.

Bearing in mind the characteristics of the ship and the weather conditions expected on the intended voyage, the master should decide on the number of securing points and lashings to be used for each voyage.

Chains and associated elements (e.g. hooks, shackles, elephants’ feet and tensioning devices) should be able to withstand a load of not less than 100kN without permanent deformation.

Where, exceptionally, wire ropes or other materials are used their breaking load should be at least 200kN (20.39 tonnef).

Lashings should be so designed and attached that, provided that there is safe access, it is possible to tighten them if they become slack.

Securing points provided on vehicles should be used for lashing purposes.

Hooks and other devices which are used for attaching a lashing to a securing point must be designed and applied in a manner which prevents them from disengaging from the aperture of the securing point if the lashing slackens during a voyage.

Where practicable, the arrangement of lashings on both sides of a vehicle should be the same, and angled to provide some fore-and-aft restraint with an equal number pulling forward as are pulling aft, and under equal tension.

Crossed lashings should, where practicable, not be used for securing freight vehicles because this disposition provides no restraint against tipping over at moderate angles of roll of the ship. With these vehicles, lashings should pass from a securing point on the vehicle to a deck securing point adjacent to the same side of the vehicle. Where there is concern about the possibility of low coefficients of fiction on vehicles such as solid wheeled trailers, additional crossed lashings may be used to restrain sliding.

Bearing in mind the characteristics of the ship and the conditions expected on the intended voyage, the master should decide on the number of securing points and lashings, if any, to be used on each class of vehicle having regard to any vehicles which by the nature or disposition of their load may require particular attention.

Additional factors which may be present and which should be taken into account are:-

1 The intended stowage arrangement including the presence of bulk liquids and hazardous cargoes.

2 The weight and centres of gravity of the vehicles. High centres of gravity can substantially increase the lashing loads. With loads which evidently have a very high centre of gravity it may be necessary to utilise additional lashings attached at or near the top of the load.

3 Factors which may reduce the coefficients of friction between various bearing surfaces.
It is not possible to specify with certainty the maximum forces which may be exerted in the most severe conditions. If in doubt, or if very heavy weather is forecast, additional lashings should be fitted or appropriate operational measures, such as delaying sailing or altering course, taken to minimise the forces.

Where there is doubt that a road vehicle complies with the accepted criteria for number and strength of securing points, the master may, at his discretion, load the vehicle on board or reject it for carriage, taking into account the apparent condition of the vehicle, the weather and sea conditions expected on the intended voyage and all other circumstances.

3 Stowage

Depending on the area of operation, the predominant weather conditions and the characteristics of the ship, road vehicles should be stowed so that the chassis are kept as static as possible by not allowing free play in the suspension of the vehicles. This can be done, for example, by compressing the springs by tightly securing the vehicle to the deck, by jacking up the chassis prior to securing the vehicle or by releasing the air pressure on compressed air suspension systems.

Taking into account the condition referred to above and the fact that compressed air suspension systems may lose air, the air pressure should be released on every vehicle fitted with such a system if the voyage is of more than 24 hours duration. If practicable, the air pressure should be released also on voyages of a shorter duration. If the air pressure is not released, the vehicle should be jacked up to prevent any slackening of the lashings resulting from any air leakage from the system during the voyage.

Where jacks are used on a vehicle, the chassis should be strengthened in way of the jacking-up points and the position of the jacking-up points should be clearly marked.

Special consideration should be given to the securing of road vehicles stowed in positions where they may be exposed to additional forces. Where vehicles are stowed athwartship, special consideration should be given to the forces which may arise from such stowage. Vehicles should, so far as possible, be aligned in a fore and aft direction.

Wheels should be chocked to provide additional security in adverse conditions. When freight vehicles are being stowed on an inclined deck, the wheels must be chocked before lashing commences.

Vehicles with diesel engines should not be left in gear during the voyage.

Vehicles designed to transport loads likely to have an adverse effect on their stability, such as hanging meat, should have integrated in their design a means of neutralizing the suspension system.

Stowage should be arranged in accordance with the following:

1 The parking brakes of each vehicle or of each element of a combination of vehicles should be applied and locked.

2 Semi-trailers by the nature of their design, should not be supported on their landing legs during sea transport unless the landing legs are specially designed for that purpose and so marked. An uncoupled semi-trailer should be supported by a trestle or similar device placed in the immediate area of the drawplate so that the connection of the fifth-wheel to the kingpin is not restricted. Semi-trailers should not be supported on their landing legs during sea transportation unless the deck plating has adequate strength for the point loadings. Semi-trailer designers should consider the space and the reinforcements required and the selected areas should be clearly marked.

Vehicles should be closely stowed athwartships so that, in the event of any failure in the securing arrangements or from any other cause, the transverse movement is restricted. However, sufficient distance should be provided between vehicles to permit safe access for the crew and for passengers getting into and out of vehicles and going to and from accesses serving vehicle spaces.

3.1 Preamble
In view of experience in the transport of road vehicles on ro-ro ships, it is recommended that these Guidelines for securing road vehicles on board such ships should be followed. Shipowners and shipyards, when designing and building ro-ro ships to which these Guidelines apply, should take sections 4 and 6 particularly into account. Manufacturers, owners and operators of road vehicles which may be transported on ro-ro ships should take sections 5 and 7 particularly into account.
1 Scope
1.1. These Guidelines for securing and lashing road vehicles on board ro-ro ships outline in particular the securing arrangements on the ship and on the vehicles, and the securing methods to be used.
2 Application
2.1. These Guidelines apply to ro-ro ships which regularly carry road vehicles on either long or short international voyages in unsheltered waters. They concern:
.1. road vehicles as defined in 3.2.1, 3.2.2, 3.2.3 and 3.2.5 with an authorized maximum total mass on vehicles and cargo of between 3.5 and 40 tonnes; and
.2. articulated road trains as defined in 3.2.4 with a maximum total mass of not more than 45 tonnes, which can be carried on ro-ro ships.
2.2. These Guidelines do not apply to buses.
2.3. For road vehicles having characteristics outside the general parameters for road vehicles (particularly where the normal height of the centre of gravity is exceeded), the location and the number of securing points should be specially considered.
3 Definitions
3.1. "Ro-ro ship" means a ship which has one or more decks either closed or open, not normally subdivided in any way and generally running the entire length of the ship, in which goods (packaged or in bulk, in or on road vehicles (including road tank-vehicles), trailers, containers, pallets, demountable or portable tanks or in or on similar cargo transport units or other receptacles) can be loaded or unloaded normally in a horizontal direction.
3.2. In these Guidelines the term road vehicle includes:
.1. Commercial vehicle which means a motor vehicle which, on account of its design and appointments, is used mainly for conveying goods. It may also be towing a trailer.
.2. Semi-trailer which means a trailer which is designed to be coupled to a semi-trailer towing vehicle and to impose a substantial part of its total mass on the towing vehicle.
.3. Road train which means the combination of a motor vehicle with one or more independent trailers connected by a drawbar. (For the purpose of section 5 each element of a road train is considered a separate vehicle.)
.4. Articulated road train which means the combination of a semi-trailer towing vehicle with a semi-trailer.
.5. Combination of vehicles which means a motor vehicle coupled with one or more towed vehicles. (For the purpose of section 5 each element of a combination of vehicles is considered a separate vehicle.)
4 Securing Points on Ships’ Decks
4.1. The ship should carry a Cargo Securing Manual in accordance with resolution A.489(XII) containing the information listed and recommended in paragraph 10 of the Annex to that resolution.
4.2. The decks of a ship intended for road vehicles as defined in 3.2 should be provided with securing points. The arrangement of securing points should be left to the discretion of the shipowner provided that for each road vehicle or element of a combination of road vehicles, there is the following minimum arrangement of securing points:
.1. The distance between securing points in the longitudinal direction should in general not exceed 2.5 m. However, there may be a need for the securing points in the forward and after parts of the ship to be more closely spaced than they are amidships.
.2. The thwartships spacing of securing points should not be less than 2.8 m nor more than 3 m. However, there may be a need for the securing points in the forward and after parts of the ship to be more closely spaced than they are amidships.
.3. The minimum strength without permanent deformation of each securing point should be 100 kN. If the securing point is designed to accommodate more than one lashing (y lashings) the corresponding strength should be not less than y × 100 kN.
4.3. In ro-ro ships which only occasionally carry road vehicles, the spacing and strength of securing points should be such that the special considerations which may be necessary to stow and secure road vehicles safely are taken into account.
5 Securing Points on Road Vehicles
5.1. Securing points on road vehicles should be designed for securing the road vehicles to the ship and should have an aperture capable of accepting only one lashing. The securing point and aperture should permit varying directions of the lashing to the ship’s deck
5.2. The same number of not less than two or not more than six securing points should be provided on each side of the road vehicle in accordance with the provisions of 5.3.
5.3. Subject to the provisions of notes 1, 2 and 3 hereunder, the minimum number and minimum strength of securing points should be in accordance with the following table:
Gross vehicle mass
(GVM)
(tonnes) Minimum number of securing points on each side of the road vehicle Minimum strength without permanent deformation of each securing point as fitted
(kN)
3.5 t ≤ GVM ≤ 20 t 2 GVMx10x1.2
--------------------
n*
20 t < GVM ≤ 30 t 3
30 t < GVM ≤ 40 t 4
* Where n is the total number of securing points on each side of the road vehicle.
Notes:
1: For road trains, the table applies to each component, i.e. to the motor vehicle and each trailer, respectively.
2: Semi-trailer towing vehicles are excluded from the table above. They should be provided with two securing points at the front of the vehicle, the strength of which should be sufficient to prevent lateral movement of the front of the vehicle. A towing coupling at the front may replace the two securing points.
3: If the towing coupling is used for securing vehicles other than semi-trailer towing vehicles, this should not replace or be substituted for the above-mentioned minimum number and strength of securing points on each side of the vehicle.
5.4. Each securing point on the vehicle should be marked in a clearly visible colour.
5.5. Securing points on vehicles should be so located as to ensure effective restraint of the vehicle by the lashings.
5.6. Securing points should be capable of transferring the forces from the lashings to the chassis of the road vehicle and should never be fitted to bumpers or axles unless these are specially constructed and the forces are transmitted directly to the chassis.
5.7. Securing points should be so located that lashings can be readily and safely attached, particularly where side-guards are fitted to the vehicle.
5.8. The internal free passage of each securing point’s aperture should be not less than 80 mm but the aperture need not be circular in shape.
5.9. Equivalent or superior securing arrangements may be considered for vehicles for which the provisions of table 5.3 are unsuitable.
6 Lashings
6.1. The maximum securing load (MSL) of Lashings should not be less than 100 kN and they should be made of material having suitable elongation characteristics. However, for vehicles not exceeding 15 tonnes (GVM), lashings with lower MSL values may be used. The required number and MSL of Lashing may be calculated according to annex 13 to the Code of Safe Practise for Cargo Stowage and Securing (CSS Code), taking into consideration the criteria mentioned in paragraph 1.5.1 of the Code.
6.2. Lashings should be so designed and attached that, provided there is safe access, it is possible to tighten them if they become slack. Where practicable and necessary, the lashings should be examined at regular intervals during the voyage and tightened as necessary.
6.3. Lashings should be attached to the securing points with hooks or other devices so designed that they cannot disengage from the aperture of the securing point if the lashing slackens during the voyage.
6.4. Only one lashing should be attached to any one aperture of the securing point on the vehicle.
6.5. Lashings should only be attached to the securing points provided for that purpose.
6.6. Lashings should be attached to the securing points on the vehicle in such a way that the angle between the lashing and the horizontal and vertical planes lies preferably between 30° and 60°.
6.7. Bearing in mind the characteristics of the ship and the weather conditions expected on the intended voyage, the master should decide on the number of securing points and lashings to be used for each voyage.
6.8. Where there is doubt that a road vehicle complies with the provisions of table 5.3, the master may, at his discretion, load the vehicle on board, taking into account the apparent condition of the vehicle, the weather and sea conditions expected on the intended voyage and all other circumstances.
7 Stowage
7.1. Depending on the area of operation, the predominant weather conditions and the characteristics of the ship, road vehicles should be stowed so that the chassis are kept as static as possible by not allowing free play in the suspension of the vehicles. This can be done, for example, by compressing the springs by tightly securing the vehicle to the deck, by jacking up the chassis prior to securing the vehicle or by releasing the air pressure on compressed air suspension systems.
7.2. Taking into account the conditions referred to in 7.1 and the fact that compressed air suspension systems may lose air, the air pressure should be released on every vehicle fitted with such a system if the voyage is of more than 24 hours duration. If practicable, the air pressure should be released also on voyages of a shorter duration. If the air pressure is not released, the vehicle should be jacked up to prevent any slackening of the lashings resulting from any air leakage from the system during the voyage.
7.3. Where jacks are used on a vehicle, the chassis should be strengthened in way of the jacking-up points and the position of the jacking-up points should be clearly marked.
7.4. Special consideration should be given to the securing of road vehicles stowed in positions where they may be exposed to additional forces. Where vehicles are stowed athwartship, special consideration should be given to the forces which may arise from such stowage.
7.5. Wheels should be chocked to provide additional security in adverse conditions.
7.6. Vehicles with diesel engines should not be left in gear during the voyage.
7.7. Vehicles designed to transport loads likely to have an adverse effect on their stability, such as hanging meat, should have integrated in their design a means of neutralizing the suspension system.
7.8. Stowage should be arranged in accordance with the following:
.1. The parking brakes of each vehicle or of each element of a combination of vehicles should be applied and locked.
.2. Semi-trailers, by the nature of their design, should not be supported on their landing legs during sea transport unless the landing legs are specially designed for that purpose and so marked. An uncoupled semi-trailer should be supported by a trestle or similar device placed in the immediate area of the drawplate so that the connection of the fifth-wheel to the kingpin is not restricted. Semi-trailer designers should consider the space and the reinforcements required and the selected areas should be clearly marked.



3.5 Bulk carriers

If bulk carriers carry cargo units falling within the scope of chapter VI/5 or chapter VII/6 of SOLAS Convention, this cargo shall be stowed and secured in accordance with a Cargo Securing Manual, approved by the Administration.

3.5.1 Carriage of containers in bulk carriers

This vessel has sloping hopper side tanks, and adequate measures must be adopted to ensure that the containers, as a result of rolling stresses, will not move or collapse into the large space between the block of containers and the ships sides. To ensure the safe carriage of large blocks of containers in a bulk carrier certain basic requirements must be fulfilled. The most important of these requirements is whenever possible to form the containers in to one solid rigid block so that there will be no movement whatsoever. All the containers in a block may not be loaded or discharged at a single port, and in consequence there may be parts of a voyage when the block will be irregular rather than cuboid in shape. The bottom containers in the stacks should be secured to the ship’s tank-top plating by twist-locks or lockable locator cones, and in addition twist-locks or lockable inter-layer stackers should be used between each container in the stack. 2

In the absence of these precautionary measures the stacking of containers two high or more will produce racking stresses which tend to distort them laterally. This problem will be aggravated during heavy weather when the weight of the containers in the upper part of the stow may cause the corner posts of the lower containers to buckle, with the inevitable result that the stow collapses. This is more likely to happen in the forward holds where the effects of pounding are more pronounced. 2

3.6 Timber deck cargoes

Note: If vessels are to carry Timber Deck Cargoes, reference should be made to the “Code of Safe Practice for Ships carrying Timber Deck Cargoes”

When a ship is assigned a timber load line then, in order to load to those marks, the vessel must be loaded with a timber deck cargo which is correctly stowed and fully in accordance with the 1966 Loadline Convention.

If the timber is stowed to a lesser height than required or is not correctly stowed in any other way, i.e. not the full length of the well or not from side to side - then the ship is not permitted to load to the timber load line.

When timber is correctly stowed on deck, the ship may load to the timber load line irrespective of the quantity or type of cargo stowed below decks. The reduction in freeboard enjoyed by a ship which is assigned timber load lines is permitted because of the buoyancy contribution of the timber deck cargo to the ship’s stability characteristics.

When a full timber cargo is carried on deck and the ship is loaded to the timber load line, the statical stability curve may be derived from the cross-curves of stability. When the timber deck cargo is not correctly stowed, due to deficient height or other reason, the statical stability curve must be derived from the cross-curves computed for the ship without timber deck cargo.

Ships having timber loadlines should comply with the requirements of the 1966 Loadline Convention where these differ from the following general guidance:

3.6.1 Stability

1 The ship should be supplied with comprehensive stability information which takes into account timber deck cargo. Such information should enable the master, rapidly and simply, to obtain accurate guidance as to the stability of the ship under varying conditions of service. Comprehensive rolling period tables or diagrams have proved to be a very useful aid in verifying the actual stability conditions.

2 The stability of the ship at all times, including during the process of loading and unloading timber deck cargo, should be positive and to a standard acceptable to the Administration. It should be calculated having regard to:

1 the increased weight of the timber deck cargo due to:

1 absorption of water in dried or seasoned timber, and

2 ice accretion, if applicable;

2 consumables;

3 the free surface effect of liquid in tanks; and

4 the weight of water trapped in broken spaces within the timber deck cargo and especially logs.

3 The master should:

1 cease all loading operations if a list develops for which there is no satisfactory explanation and it would be imprudent to continue loading;

2 before proceeding to sea, ensure that:

1 the ship is upright;

2 the ship has an adequate metacentric height in both departure and arrival conditions; and

3 the ship meets the required stability criteria.

4 Ships carrying timber deck cargoes should operate, as far as possible, with a safe margin of stability and with a metacentric height which is consistent with safety requirements but such metacentric height should not be allowed to fall below the recommended minimum.

5 However, excessive initial stability should be avoided as it will result in rapid and violent motion in heavy seas which will impose large sliding and racking forces on the cargo causing high stresses on the lashings. Operational experience indicates that metacentric height should preferably not exceed 3% of the breadth in order to prevent excessive accelerations in rolling provided that the relevant stability criteria are satisfied. This recommendation may not apply to all ships and the master should take into consideration the stability information obtained from the ship's stability manual.

3.6.2 Stowage

1 General

Before timber deck cargo is loaded on any area of the weather deck:

1 hatch covers and other openings to spaces below that area should be securely closed and battened down;

2 air pipes and ventilators should be efficiently protected and check-valves or similar devices should be examined to ascertain their effectiveness against the entry of water;

3 accumulations of ice and snow on such area should be removed; and

4 it is normally preferable to have all deck lashings, uprights, etc., in position before loading on that specific area. This will be necessary should a preloading examination of securing equipment be required in the loading port.

The timber deck cargo should be so stowed that:

1 safe and satisfactory access to the crew's quarters, pilot boarding access, machinery spaces and all other areas regularly used in the necessary working of the ship is provided at all times;

2 where relevant, openings that give access to hatch covers and other openings to spaces below that area can be properly closed and secured against the entry of water;

3 safety equipment, devices for remote operation of valves and sounding pipes are left accessible; and

4 it is compact and will not interfere in any way with the navigation and necessary working of the ship.

During loading, the timber deck cargo should be kept free of any accumulations of ice and snow.
Upon completion of loading, and before sailing, a thorough inspection of the ship should be carried out. Soundings should also be taken to verify that no structural damage has occurred causing an ingress of water.

2 Height and extent of timber deck cargo

Subject to the maintenance of adequate visibility, the height of the timber deck cargo above the weather deck on a ship within a seasonal winter zone in winter should not exceed one third of the extreme breadth of the ship.

The height of the timber deck cargo should be restricted so that:

1 adequate visibility is assured;

2 a safe margin of stability is maintained at all stages of the voyage;

3 any forward-facing profile does not present overhanging shoulders to a head sea; and

4 the weight of the timber deck cargo does not exceed the designed maximum permissible load on the weather deck and hatches.

On ships provided with, and making use of, their timber loadline, the timber deck cargo should be stowed so as to extend:

1 over the entire available length of the well or wells between superstructures and as close as practicable to end bulkheads;

2 at least to the after end of the aftermost hatchway in the case where there is no limiting superstructure at the after end;

3 athwartships as close as possible to the ship's sides, after making due allowance for obstructions such as guardrails, bulwark stays, uprights, pilot boarding access, etc., provided any area of broken stowage thus created at the side of the ship does not exceed a mean of 4% of the breadth; and

4 to at least the standard height of a superstructure other than a raised quarterdeck.

The basic principle for the safe carriage of any timber deck cargo is a solid stowage during all stages of the deck loading. This can only be achieved by constant supervision by shipboard personnel during the loading process.

Appendix A provides general advice on stowage practices which have proved to be effective for various types of timber deck cargoes.

3.6.3 Securing

1 General

Every lashing should pass over the timber deck cargo and be shackled to eyeplates suitable and adequate for the intended purpose and efficiently attached to the deck stringer plate or other strengthened points. Such arrangements will be specially considered by class. They should be installed in such a manner as to be, as far as practicable, in contact with the timber deck cargo throughout its full height.

All lashings and components used for securing should:

1 possess a breaking strength of not less than 133 kN;

2 after initial stressing, show an elongation of not more than 5% at 80% of their breaking strength; and

3 show no permanent deformation after having been subjected to a proof load of not less than 40% of their original breaking strength.

Every lashing should be provided with a tightening device or system so placed that it can safely and efficiently operate when required. The load to be produced by the tightening device or system should not be less than:

1 27 kN in the horizontal part; and

2 16 kN in the vertical part.

Upon completion and after the initial securing, the tightening device or system should be left with not less than half the threaded length of screw or of tightening capacity available for future use.

Every lashing should be provided with a device or an installation to permit the length of the lashing to be adjusted.

The spacing of the lashings should be such that the two lashings at each end of each length of continuous deck stow are positioned as close as practicable to the extreme end of the timber deck cargo.

If wire rope clips are used to make a joint in a wire lashing, the following conditions should be observed to avoid a significant reduction in strength:

1 the number and size of rope clips utilized should be in proportion to the diameter of the wire rope and should not be less than four, each spaced at intervals of not less than 15 cm;

2 the saddle portion of the clip should be applied to the live load segment and the U-bolt to the dead or shortened end segment;

3 rope clips should be initially tightened so that they visibly penetrate into the wire rope and subsequently be re-tightened after the lashing has been stressed.

Greasing the threads of grips, clips, shackles and turnbuckles increases their holding capacity and prevents corrosion.

2 Uprights

Uprights should be fitted when required by the nature, height or character of the timber deck cargo.

When uprights are fitted, they should:

1 be made of steel or other suitable material of adequate strength, taking into account the breadth of the deck cargo;

2 be spaced at intervals not exceeding 3 m;

3 be fixed to the deck by angles, metal sockets or equally efficient means; and
4 if deemed necessary, be further secured by a metal bracket to a strengthened point, i.e. bulwark, hatch coaming.

3 Loose or packaged sawn timber

The timber deck cargo should be secured throughout its length by independent lashings.

Subject to packages stowed at the upper outboard edge of the stow being secured by at least two lashings each, the maximum spacing of the lashings referred to above should be determined by the maximum height of the timber deck cargo in the vicinity of the lashings:

1 for a height of 4 m and below, the spacing should be 3m;

2 for heights of above 4 m, the spacing should be 1.5m.

The packages stowed at the upper outboard edge of the stow should be secured by at least two lashings each.

When the outboard stow of the timber deck cargo is in lengths of less than 3.6 m, the spacing of the lashings should be reduced as necessary or other suitable provisions made to suit the length of timber.

Rounded angle pieces of suitable material and design should be used along the upper outboard edge of the stow to bear the stress and permit free reeving of the lashings.

4 Logs, poles, cants or similar cargo

The timber deck cargo should be secured throughout its length by independent lashings spaced not more than 3 m apart.

If the timber deck cargo is stowed over the hatches and higher, it should, in addition to being secured by these lashings, be further secured by:

1 a system of athwartship lashings (hog lashings) joining each port and starboard pair of uprights near the top of the stow and at other appropriate levels as appropriate for the height of the stow; and

2 a lashing system to tighten the stow whereby a dual continuous wire rope (wiggle wire) is passed from side to side over the cargo and held continuously through a series of snatch blocks or other suitable device, held in place by foot wires.

The dual continuous wire rope, referred to in sub-paragraph 2 above, should be led to a winch or other tensioning device to facilitate further tightening.

The recommendation that rounded angle pieces of suitable material and design should be used along the upper outboard edge of the stow to bear the stress and permit free reeving of the lashings, should apply to a timber deck cargo of cants.

5 Testing, examination and certification

All lashing and components used for the securing of the timber deck cargo should be tested, marked and certified according to national regulations or an appropriate standard of an internationally recognized standards institute. Copies of the appropriate certificate should be kept on board.
No treatments which could hide defects or reduce mechanical properties or strength should be applied after testing.

A visual examination of lashings and components should be made at intervals not exceeding 12 months.

A visual examination of all securing points on the ship, including those on the uprights, if fitted, should be performed before loading the timber deck cargo. Any damage should be satisfactorily repaired.

6 Lashing plans

One or more lashing plans complying with the recommendations of this Code should be provided and maintained with this Cargo Securing Manual for carrying timber deck cargo.

Note: It is a Lloyd’s Register requirement that these lashing plans are approved if the vessel loads to timber loadlines.

3.6.4 Action to be taken during the voyage

1 Tightening of lashings

It is of paramount importance that all lashings be carefully examined and tightened at the beginning of the voyage as the vibration and working of the ship will cause the cargo to settle and compact. They should be further examined at regular intervals during the voyage and tightened as necessary.

It is recommended that the lashings be examined at least once per day, and more frequently if necessary.

Entries of all examinations and adjustments to lashings should be made in the ship's log-book.

2 Voyage planning and ship handling

The master should plan the voyage so as to avoid potential severe weather and sea conditions. To this effect, weather reports, weather facsimiles or weather routeing agencies should be consulted.

In cases where severe weather and sea conditions are unavoidable, masters should be conscious of the need to reduce speed and/or alter course at an early stage in order to minimize the forces imposed on the cargo, structure and lashings. The lashings are not designed to provide a means of securing against imprudent ship handling in heavy weather. There can be no substitute for good seamanship.

3 Listing during voyage

If a list occurs that is not caused by normal use of consumables (water and fuel), such a list can probably be attributed to one of three causes, or possibly a combination of same.

Cargo shift
A major shift of deck cargo will obviously be immediately apparent. Deck cargo may however have shifted imperceptibly or there may have been a shift of cargo below decks. An immediate examination should determine whether or not cargo has shifted and if this is the case the master will have several remedies available to him depending upon the exact circumstances.

The ballasting and transferring of ballast or fuel to reduce or correct a list caused by a shifted cargo should, however, be carefully considered since this action would, in all probability, result in a far greater list if the cargo should subsequently shift to the other side.
As any cargo shift will in most cases occur in adverse weather conditions, sending crew to release or tighten the lashings on a moving or shifted cargo may well represent a greater hazard than retaining an overhanging load. A moving or shifted timber deck cargo should only be jettisoned after careful consideration; jettisoning is unlikely to improve the situation as the whole cargo stack would probably not fall at once. Severe damage may also be sustained by the propeller if it is still turning when timber is jettisoned.

Water ingress
The possibility of water ingress should immediately be determined by sounding throughout the ship. In the event that unexplained water is detected, all available pumps should be used to bring the situation under control. Subsequent actions will obviously depend upon whether or not such ingress of water can be controlled by use of pumps.

Angle of loll
If the rolling of the ship prior to the detection of the list has been exceptionally slow and the ship has returned to the upright position in a sluggish manner, this will indicate that the ship has little or no metacentric height remaining. The list is therefore due to the ship lolling to one side and having no righting arm to return it to the upright position. This situation may be rectified by either adding weight to the low part of the ship (ballasting double bottom tanks) or removing weight from the high part (deck cargo). Of the two options, ballasting is usually preferable and if empty divided double bottom space is available, the tank on the lower side should be ballasted first in order to immediately provide additional metacentric height-after which the tank on the high side should also be ballasted. However, special care should be taken in ballasting and deballasting to rectify the situation since this may cause a far greater list to the other side.

Appendix A

Advice on stowage practices

1 General

1.1 The stowage practices described in this appendix have been found to achieve satisfactory results, provided that account is taken of the recommendations of the previous chapters. Although specific conditions may dictate a departure from these guidelines, the basic principles as detailed previously should nevertheless be adhered to.

1.2 The basic principle for the safe carriage of timber deck cargo is, as indicated earlier, to make the stow as solid and compact as practicable. The purpose of this is to:

1 prevent slack in the stow which could cause the lashings to slacken;

2 produce a binding effect within the stow; and

3 reduce to a minimum the permeability of the stow.

1.3 Lashings prevent deck cargo from shifting by increasing the friction due to pre-stress forces and counteracting forces on the stow in the direction of possible shifting. The lashings should meet the following criteria:

1 the strength of all lashing elements should be at least equal to that recommended in the Code; and

2 the necessary tension should be maintained during the whole voyage.
1.4 The shifting of timber deck cargo is due mainly to the following causes which may occur singly or together:

1 lashings becoming slack due to compaction of the cargo during the voyage, unsuitable devices for tightening the lashing systems and/or inadequate strength of the lashings;

2 movement of the cargo across the hatch covers due to insufficient friction, particularly in ice and snow;

3 inadequate strength of the uprights due to poor material properties and/or excessive forces;

4 heavy rolling or pitching of the ship;

5 impact from heavy seas.

1.5 Great care should be taken to keep the ship in an upright condition during loading as even a slight list will impose a considerable load on the retaining uprights. The necessity for prudent ship handling during the voyage cannot be overstressed; imprudent ship handling can nullify even the best of stowages.

1.6 The lashings should be in accordance with chapter 4 of the Code and may comprise the following types:

1 Hog lashings are normally used over the second and third tiers and may be set "hand tight" between stanchions. The weight of the upper tiers when loaded on top of these wires will further tighten them.

2 Wire rope lashings which are used in addition to chain lashings. Each of these may pass over the stow from side to side and loop completely around the uppermost tier. Turnbuckles are fitted in each lashing to provide means for tightening the lashing at sea.

3 Wiggle wires which are fitted in the manner of a shoelace to tighten the stow. These wires are passed over the stow and continuously through a series of snatch blocks, held in place by foot wires. Turnbuckles are fitted from the top of the footwire into the wiggle wire in order to keep the lashings tight at sea.

4 Chain lashings which are passed over the top of the stow and secured to substantial padeyes or other securing points at the outboard extremities of the cargo. Turnbuckles are fitted in each lashing to provide means for tightening the lashing at sea.

2 Packaged timber and cants

2.1 Timber packages are usually bundled by bandings fastened mechanically (hard bundled) or by hand (soft bundled). The packages may not have standard dimensions and they are not always flush at both ends. The stowage problem is compounded by differences in the lengths of packaged timber when the packages are stowed on board the ship. Moreover, the master of the ship often has no influence on the order in which the packages are delivered.

2.2 Packages which contain random lengths likely to disrupt the compaction of the stow should not be loaded on deck. Other packages of random lengths capable of compact stowage may be loaded on deck in a fore-and-aft direction but not on exposed surfaces or in the stowage outboard of the hatch coamings.

2.3 Packages for deck stowage should be solidly made up. They should have bands adequate to prevent slackening or disintegration of the package during the voyage, which could cause a loosening of the stow as a whole. Slack bands on the top surface of the deck cargo are dangerous foot traps.

2.4 Cants are usually bundled by banding, but the irregularities caused by varying thicknesses and curved sides make compact bundling very difficult to achieve. Because of these factors, considerable broken stowage is encountered as well. The tendency is for the packages to assume a rounded cross-section within the bands due to the curved sides of the individual pieces.

2.5 A solid stow of packaged timber is not always possible as the packages of timber have different measurements, may be partially soft bundles, and gaps may exist between the packages. It is essential, however, that the upper tier and outboard packages be stowed as compactly as possible and the upper tiers chocked as necessary.

2.6 The methods used to stow cargoes of loose timber for transport cannot always be applied to the transport of packaged timber as:

1 packaged timber cannot be stowed to give a compactness as tight as that achieved with loose timber, and lashings may therefore be less effective;

2 packaged timber cannot be stowed between the uprights as densely and with so few gaps as loose timber. The uprights may consequently have to sustain greater loads when packaged timber is being carried and may absorb the forces generated by the cargo when it is moving.

2.7 Before commencing to load on the deck or hatches, a firm and level stowage surface should be prepared. Dunnage, where used, should be of rough lumber and should be placed in the direction which will spread the load across the ship's underdeck structure and assist in draining.

2.8 Due to the system of athwartship lashing, the stowage of packages should generally be in the fore-and-aft direction; the wings of the upper two tiers should always be in the fore-and-aft direction. It is advisable to have one or more non-adjacent tiers stowed athwartships when above the level of the hatches in order to produce a binding effect within the cargo. Also, athwartship packages should be carried above the hatches to interlock the load. If packages with great differences in length are to be loaded, the longest packages should be stowed fore and aft outboard. Short packages should be confined to the inner portions of the stowage. Only packages flush at both ends can be stowed athwartships.

2.9 The timber should be loaded to produce a compact stow with a surface as level as practicable. Throughout the loading, a level and firm stowage surface should be prepared on each working tier. Rough dunnage, if used, should be spread over at least three adjacent packages to produce a binding effect within the stow, particularly in the wings.

2.10 Any gaps occurring around packages in which the cargo may work at sea, such as in the vicinity of hatch coamings and deck obstructions, should be filled with loose timber, efficiently chocked off or effectively bridged over. For this purpose a supply of timber chocking material should be made available to the ship.

2.11 Packages at the outboard edges of the stow should be positioned so that they do not extend over the padeyes and obstruct the vertical load of the athwartship lashings. The end of each deck stow should be flush in order to minimize overhangs to resist the influence of green seas and to avoid the ingress of water.

2.12 Large heavy boards and squares of timber, when loaded on deck in combination with packages, should preferably be stowed separately. When placed in upper tiers, heavy pieces of timber tend to work loose at sea and cause some breaking of packages. In the event that boards and squares are stowed on top of packages they should be efficiently restrained from movement.

2.13 When the final tier is loaded on a large number of tiers, it may be stepped in from the outer edge of the stow about 0.5-0.8 m (a half package).

3 Logs

3.1 If logs are loaded on deck together with packaged timber, the two types of timber should not be intermixed.

3.2 Logs should generally be stowed in a fore-and-aft direction to give a slightly crowned top surface such that each log is adequately restrained from movement when the system of securing is in place and set up taut.

3.3 In order to achieve a compact stow, the butt of each log or sling of logs should not be in the same athwartship plane as those adjacent to it.

3.4 In order to achieve a more secure stowage of logs when stowed on deck, a continuous wire (hog wire) should be utilized at each hatch meeting the specifications of chapter 4 of the Code. Such hog wire should be installed in the following manner:

1 At approximately three quarters of the height of the uprights, the hog wire should be rove through a padeye attached to the uprights at this level so as to run transversely, connecting the respective port and starboard uprights. The hog lashing wire should not be too tight when laid so that it becomes taut when overstowed with other logs.

2 A second hog wire may be applied in a similar manner if the height of the hatch cover is less than 2m. Such second hog wire should be installed approximately 1 m above the hatch covers.

3 The aim of having the hog wires applied in this manner is to assist in obtaining as even a tension as possible throughout, thus producing an inboard pull on the respective uprights.

4 Pulp wood and pit-props

4.1 When these items are stowed in the manner described below, good compaction of the deck cargo can be obtained.

1 In the deck area clear of the line of hatches, the cargo should be stowed in the athwartship direction, canted inboard by some cargo laid fore and aft in the scuppers.

2 At the centre of the stow, along the line of hatches, the cargo should be laid in the fore-and-aft direction when the wing cargo has reached hatch height.

3 At the completion of loading, the cargo should have a level surface with a slight crown towards the centre.

4.2 To prevent the cargo from being washed out from below its lashings, it is recommended that nets or tarpaulins be used as follows:

1 the ends of each continuous section of deck cargo, if not stowed flush with the superstructure bulkhead, may be fitted with a net or tarpaulin stretched and secured over the athwart-ship vertical surface;

2 over the forward end of each continuous section of deck cargo and in the waist of the ship the top surface may be fitted with a net or tarpaulin stretched and secured across the breadth of the cargo and brought down the outboard vertical sides to securing points at deck level.


Extract from the international conference on loadlines, 1966.

Annex I - Regulations for determining loadlines.

Regulation 44

Stowage

General

1 Openings in the weather deck over which cargo is stowed shall be securely closed and battened down. The ventilators shall be efficiently protected.

2 Timber deck cargo shall extend over at least the entire available length which is the total length of the well or wells between superstructures. Where there is no limiting superstructure at the after end, the timber shall extend at least to the after end of the aftermost hatchway. The timber shall be stowed as solidly as possible to at least the standard height of the superstructure.

3 On a ship within a seasonal winter zone in winter, the height of the deck cargo above the weather deck shall not exceed one-third of the extreme breadth of the ship.

4 The timber deck cargo shall be compactly stowed, lashed and secured. It shall not interfere in any way with the navigation and necessary work of the ship.

Uprights

5 Uprights, when required by the nature of the timber, shall be of adequate strength considering the breadth of the ship; the spacing shall be suitable for the length and character of timber carried, but shall not exceed 3 metres (9.8 feet). Strong angles or metal sockets or equally efficient means shall be provided for securing the uprights.

Lashings

6 Timber deck cargo shall be efficiently secured throughout its length by independent over-all lashings spaced not more than 3 metres (9.8 feet) apart. Eye plates for these lashings shall be efficiently attached to the sheer strake or to the deck stringer plate at intervals of not more than 3 metres (9.8 feet). The distance from an end bulkhead of a superstructure to the first eye plate shall be not more than 2 metres (6.6 feet). Eye plates and lashings shall be provided 0.6 metres (23 inches) and 1.5 metres (4.9 feet) from the ends of timber deck cargoes where there is no bulkhead.

7 Lashings shall be not less than 19 millimetres (1 inch) close link chain or flexible wire rope of equivalent strength, fitted with sliphooks and turnbuckles, which shall be accessible at all times. Wire rope lashings shall have a short length of long link chain to permit the length of lashings to be regulated.

8 When timber is in lengths less than 3.6 metres (11.8 feet) the spacing of the lashings shall be reduced or other suitable provisions made to suit the length of timber.

9 All fittings required for securing the lashings shall be of strength corresponding to the strength of the lashings.

Stability

10 Provision shall be made for a safe margin of stability at all stages of the voyage, regard being given to additions of weight, such as those due to absorption of water and icing and to losses of weight such as those due to consumption of fuel and stores.

Protection of crew, access to machinery spaces, etc.

11 In addition to the requirements of Regulation 25 (5) of this Annex guard rails or life lines spaced not more than 330 millimetres (13 inches) apart vertically shall be provided on each side of the deck cargo to a height of at least 1 metre (39 inches) above the cargo.

Steering arrangements

12 Steering arrangements shall be effectively protected from damage by cargo and, as far as practicable, shall be accessible. Efficient provision shall be made for steering in the event of a breakdown in the main steering arrangements.

3.7 Vessels engaged in the carriage of irradiated nuclear fuel, plutonium and high-level radioactive wastes in flasks.

Note: If vessels are intended to carry these cargoes, reference should also be made to IMO Resolution A.748(18), Code for the Safe Carriage of Irradiated Nuclear Fuel, Plutonium and High-level Radioactive Wastes in Flasks On board Ships (INF Code)

3.7.1 Adequate permanent securing devices should be provided to prevent movement of the flasks within the cargo spaces. In designing permanent devices, due consideration should be given to the orientation of the flasks and the following ship acceleration levels should be taken into account:

1.5g longitudinally;

1.5g transversely;

1.0g vertically up;

2.0g vertically down;

or alternatively,

where flasks are carried on the open deck or a vehicle deck they should be secured in accordance with the principles of safe stowage and securing of heavy unitized and wheel-based (rolling) cargoes contained in Chapter 3.3, and Annexes 4 and 7 of this Manual, taking into account the Guidelines for Securing Arrangements for the Transport of Road Vehicles on Ro-Ro ships (refer also to Chapter 3.4 of this Manual).

3.7.2 Where collision chocks are used, these should be so arranged that they will not interfere or prevent cooling air flow which may be necessary.

3.8 Offshore supply vessels

Note: These vessels will be required to carry a Cargo Securing Manual. Reference should also be made to the “Code of Safe Practice for the Carriage of Cargoes and Persons by Offshore Supply Vessels (OSV Code)”, IMO Resolution A.863(20) adopted on 27 November 1997.

3.9 Other specialised craft

Note: Other Specialised Craft, such as cable and pipe laying vessels will be required to carry a Cargo Securing Manual, as will passenger vessels engaged in the carriage of Cargo Units.

Chapter 4
Stowage and securing of containers and other standardised cargo
4.1 Handling and safety instructions
This sub-chapter contains instructions on the proper handling of the securing devices and safety instructions related to handling of securing devices and to securing and unsecuring of containers or other standardised cargo by ship or shore personnel.
Notes: Detailed instructions regarding the above must be included in the manual for all securing devices used on board. Extracts taken from manufacturers guidance literature may be inserted into the manual for this purpose, but references to such literature or other sources of information is not sufficient. For examples, see Appendix 2C at the back of the Manual.
Guidance should also be included to ensure that securing equipment of the appropriate type and load capacity is used for the cargo unit in question, and that equipment with differing operational methods should not be mixed where this could give rise to confusion and improper application.
General principles of cargo securing:
All cargoes should be stowed and secured in such a way that the ship and persons on board are not put at risk.
The safe stowage and securing of cargoes depends on proper planning, execution and supervision.
Personnel commissioned to tasks of cargo stowage and securing should be properly qualified and experienced.
Personnel planning and supervising the stowage and securing of cargo should have a sound practical knowledge of the application and content of this Cargo Securing Manual.
In all cases, improper stowage and securing of cargo will be potentially hazardous to the securing of other cargoes and to the ship itself.
Decisions taken for measures of stowage and securing cargo should be based on the most severe weather conditions which may be expected by experience for the intended voyage.
Ship-handling decisions taken by the master, especially in bad weather conditions, should take into account the type and stowage position of the cargo and the securing arrangements.
Equipment
The ship’s cargo securing equipment should be:

1 available in sufficient quantity;
2 suitable for its intended purpose, taking into account the recommendations of this Cargo Securing Manual;
3 of adequate strength;
4 easy to use; and
5 well maintained
6 there should be a sufficient quantity of reserve cargo securing gear on board the ship.
Special cargo transport units
The shipowner and the ship operator should, when necessary, make use of relevant expertise when considering the shipment of a cargo with unusual characteristics which may require special attention to be given to its location on board vis-à-vis the structural strength of the ship, its stowage and securing, and the weather conditions which may be expected during the intended voyage.

Cargo information
Prior to shipment the shipper should provide all necessary information about the cargo to enable the shipowner or ship operator to ensure that:

1 the different commodities to be carried are compatible with each other or suitably separated;
2 the cargo is suitable for the ship;
3 the ship is suitable for the cargo; and
4 the cargo can be safely stowed and secured on board the ship and transported under all expected conditions during the intended voyage.

The master should be provided with adequate information regarding the cargo to be carried so that its stowage may be properly planned for handling and transport.

Suitability of cargo for transport
Cargo carried in containers and other transport units should be packed and secured within these units so as to prevent, throughout the voyage, damage or hazard to the ship, to the persons on board and to the marine environment.

Cargo distribution
It is of utmost importance that the master takes great care in planning and supervising the stowage and securing of cargoes in order to prevent cargo sliding, tipping, racking, collapsing, etc.

The cargo should be distributed so as to ensure that the stability of the ship throughout the entire voyage remains within acceptable limits so that the hazards of excessive accelerations are reduced as far as practicable.

Cargo distribution should be such that the structural strength of the ship is not adversely affected.

In handling containers, care should be taken against the possibility of uneven loading and poorly distributed or incorrectly declared weight of contents.

Cargo securing arrangements
Particular care should be taken to distribute forces as evenly as practicable between the cargo securing devices. If this is not feasible, the arrangements should be upgraded accordingly.

If, due to the complex structure of a securing arrangement or other circumstances, the person in charge is unable to assess the suitability of the arrangement from experience and knowledge of good seamanship, the arrangement should be verified by using an acceptable calculation method.

The cargo securing gear should be adapted to the quantity and properties of the cargo to be carried and, when required, additional gear should be provided.

Lashings should be kept as short as possible. Long lashings are difficult to tighten and difficult to keep taut.

The skirts of the bottom rails of containers should not be allowed to come into contact with underlying dunnage. These structures are not strength members, and will buckle and give way if placed on dunnage.

Heavy items of machinery or plant and bagged bulk products which are stored on flats may need to be further secured by additional lashings.

Residual strength after wear and tear
Cargo securing arrangements and equipment should have sufficient residual strength to allow for normal wear and tear during their lifetime.

Shipboard supervision
The principal means of preventing the improper stowage and securing of cargoes is through proper supervision of the loading operation and inspections of the stow.

As far as practicable, cargo spaces should be regularly inspected throughout the voyage to ensure that the cargo and cargo transport units remain safely secured.

Entering enclosed spaces
The atmosphere in any enclosed space may be incapable of supporting human life through lack of oxygen or it may contain flammable or toxic gases. The master should ensure that it is safe to enter any enclosed space.

General elements to be considered by the master
Prior to loading of any cargo or cargo transport unit the master should ensure that:

1 the deck area for their stowage is, as far as practicable, clean, dry and free from oil and grease;

2 the cargo or cargo transport unit appears to be in suitable condition for transport, and can be effectively secured (damaged containers should not be loaded);

3 all necessary cargo securing equipment is on board and in good working condition; and

4 cargo in or on cargo transport units is, to the extent practicable, properly stowed and secured on to the unit.

Dangerous cargoes
If the ship is certified for the carriage of dangerous goods, reference should be made to the IMDG Code for information on the classes of dangerous goods to be loaded, their handling, stowage, securing and carriage. Reference should also be made to MSC/Circ. 675 “Recommendations on the Safe Transport of Dangerous Cargoes and Related Activities in Port Areas”.

For the securing of hazardous or dangerous cargoes, only certified fittings should be used.
Cargo stowage and securing declaration
Where there is reason to suspect that a container into which dangerous goods have been packed or loaded is not in compliance with the provisions of regulation VII/6.2 or 6.3 of SOLAS 1974, including 1998 amendments, or with the provisions of section 12 or 17, as appropriate, of the General Introduction to the IMDG Code, or where a container packing certificate is not available, the container should not be accepted for shipment.

4.1.1 Instructions on the proper handling of the securing devices
Portable securing equipment

The handling of all portable cargo securing devices is to be in accordance with this Cargo Securing Manual and the manufacturers instructions which are included in Appendix 2C at the back of the Manual.

For general information about arrangement and handling of securing equipment, “instruction boards” should be arranged within deck areas and also in holds, if necessary.

Particular care should be taken to avoid impact damage to devices with moving parts, operating screwthreads or any other feature which, if damaged, could result in the device either not operating at all, or operating in such a manner that the securing of the cargo unit cannot be ensured.

The portable securing equipment provided on board should be utilised as follows:

1 Twistlocks

Twistlocks may be either left-locking or right-locking. It is recommended that only one type of twistlock be carried on board such that all the twistlocks are locked to the same side for ease of checking the locking position. If the ship carries both types of twistlock, then the different types should be clearly identified (e.g. green paint for right-locking and red paint for left-locking).

All twistlocks in use must be locked, including twistlocks located in the gap between 20’ containers (76mm gap).

Twistlocks must be inserted so that the opening devices are accessible for opening.

Twistlocks must always be inserted the correct way round and not upside down, otherwise this could lead to stacking or discharging problems and dangers.

In order to ensure proper fit, twistlocks should be pushed all the way into the socket.

Semi-automatic twistlocks must be inserted into the ISO-hole on quayside with yellow cone upside, if this type is used.

The manufacturers’ operating instructions should be followed when freeing jammed semi-automatic twistlocks using emergency tools.

Twistlocks should be locked before applying lashings.

Twistlocks are not to be thrown down to the hatch cover, deck or another container roof. This may damage the twistlock, present a hazard to personnel or damage a container roof. A bucket or other suitable means of lowering or lifting must always be used.

2 Turnbuckles

Always use turnbuckles with the tension force acting in one straight line.

Never allow a turnbuckle to become the fulcrum of angled forces, no matter how slight

Make sure the screws are at adequate extension when the securing of the cargo is finalised, thereby providing scope for further tightening if this should prove necessary during the voyage.

As far as possible, lashing rod/turnbuckle assemblies should be evenly tightened.

Do not use excessive force when tightening turnbuckles. Never use extension devices (e.g. pipes or levers) to tighten the unit because this will over tension the lashing assembly.

During the voyage, turnbuckles should be checked at regular intervals and re-tightened as necessary.

Below deck, and where high torque upon a main lashing is involved, the eyes of the turnbuckle should be seized/stopped against its own body to prevent the screws working back under load during the course of the voyage. It may not prove possible to check and/or re-tension below-deck lashings once cargo loading has been completed and hatch covers are secured.

3 Bridge fittings

Bridge fittings should be evenly tensioned and not overtightened to the extent that they draw together adjacent containers. This is most likely to occur with empty or very lightly loaded containers. Adjustable or auto torque spanners are helpful to achieve the required condition, but good operator practice should achieve the required results.

In the case of bridge fittings with additional distance plates for pressure forces, the pressure device should be correctly fitted between the container corners.

Adjustable pressure or tension/compression elements have to be set with a minimum clearance to the longitudinal bulkhead in order to reduce the movement within the container block.


4.1.2 Safety instructions related to handling of securing devices and to securing and unsecuring of containers or other standardized cargo by ship or shore personnel

Personal safety

When carrying out cargo operations, personnel should wear safety helmets, protective footwear, protective clothing and gloves. Rain wear should also be worn, when required.

Personnel should be medically fit and adequately trained.

Cargo securing and unsecuring operations

Securing or unsecuring of containers must be carried out whilst the ship is at berth or safe anchorage.

If securing or unsecuring is to be carried out at anchor or at an exposed berth, before operations commence, the Master should give due regard to the prevailing weather conditions and sea state. If the ship motions and/or wind effects are considered to be too severe, then operations should be postponed.

Once operations have commenced, the weather should be regularly monitored and if significant deterioration occurs, operations should be temporarily halted. Any containers or other cargo units on board which are not secured should be discharged, if safe to do so, or secured on board until weather conditions improve.

As far as possible, work on top of container stacks should be avoided. This may be achieved by the use of positive container securing devices, such as cellguides and semi-automatic twistlocks.

If work on top of containers is not avoidable, a fall protection system must be used to protect personnel from fall hazards.

A fall hazard exists whenever personnel are working within 0.9m of the unprotected edge of a work surface that is 3m or more above the adjoining surface and 0.3m or more, horizontally, from the adjacent surface, or where weather conditions impair vision or sound footing of personnel working on top of containers.

Suitable lashing cages should be used to provide a fall protection system when accessing the top of container stacks for inserting, locking, unlocking or collecting securing devices.

A safety harness with securing rope of limited length or inertia belt should be used if it is necessary for personnel to leave the lashing cage when a fall hazard exists.

Fall protection systems should be rigged to minimise the free-fall distance such that personnel will not fall onto any lower level stowage or vessel structure.

Fall protection systems should be designed and used such that accidental disengagement is prevented.

Fall protection systems should be inspected and maintained prior to each days use.

Personnel required to use a fall protection system should be trained in its proper application.

If personnel are exposed to fall hazards where the use of a fall protection system is not feasible, they must be warned about the hazards involved and instructed how to minimise the hazard.

Mounting of containers by the use of ladders or other unsuitable means should be prohibited.

Personnel should not stand or work under moving containers or where others are working above.

All securing devices should be handled with due regard to the safety of both the personnel affixing them and any personnel who will come into contact with them whilst they are being affixed and/or are in place.

Securing devices and other equipment should be placed in bins when not in use.

Loose securing devices and other equipment should be removed from container tops and hatch covers before they are lifted or moved.

Securing devices and other equipment should not be thrown or dropped.

Particular care should be taken when working on container tops. Loose securing devices, particularly twistlocks and lashing equipment, pose a considerable danger if inadvertently dropped.

Defective securing devices should not be used but quarantined to ensure they cannot be confused with useable equipment and reported to the responsible Officer.

The tops of containers, decks and hatch covers should be checked for loose securing equipment after cargo operations have been completed.

Deck lashing points which obtrude on walkways should be painted white and warning notices displayed.

Personnel should be aware that a container may drop as a result of failure of cargo handling equipment and that the structure of a container itself may fail due to overloading or damage during cargo operations. This may result in the contents of the container spilling out and raining down on deck. Personnel transiting the deck during cargo operations should, if possible, use the outboard side of the ship.

Where the ships electrical supply is used for refrigerated containers, the supply cables should be provided with proper connections for the power circuits and for earthing the container. Before use the supply cables and connections should be inspected and any defects repaired and tested by a competent person. Supply cables should only be handled when the power is switched off.

Working environment

Loading and unloading areas should be adequately and properly illuminated.

Working on deck in ice, snow, strong wind or rain must be carefully controlled to prevent slips and falls.

If the wind is too strong for cranes to work, then personnel should seek shelter or work with great caution.

Work on top of containers should be avoided if ice, snow, wind or rain create a hazard.

Crane operations

When discharging containers which have been secured with twistlocks, the containers initially should be lifted slowly to ensure that the twistlock has been released properly.

When moving containers by crane, there should be no trailing rods or wires.

Crane drivers operating from the quay should not land containers on deck stows when unsighted, without confirmation that the area is clear

The crane driver should always be in contact with personnel in the lashing cage.

Intermodal (i.e. ISO) freight containers should be hoisted vertically only and using the correct spreader.

Containers should never be lifted using wire slings alone, because this may deform the container, rendering it unsuitable for placing in cell guides and/or handling by specialised equipment.


4.2 Stowage and securing instructions

This sub-chapter is applicable to any stowage and securing system (i.e. stowage within or without cellguides) for containers and other standardised cargo. On existing ships the relevant documents regarding safe stowage may be integrated into the material used for the preparation of this chapter.

4.2.1 Stowage and securing plan

This sub-chapter should consist of a comprehensive and understandable plan or set of plans providing the necessary overview on:

1 longitudinal and athwartship views of under deck and on deck stowage locations of containers as appropriate;

2 alternative stowage patterns for containers of different dimensions;

3 maximum stack masses;

4 permissible vertical sequences of masses in stacks;

5 maximum stack heights with respect to approved sight lines; and

6 application of securing devices using suitable symbols with due regard to stowage position, stack mass, sequence of masses in stack and stack height. The symbols used should be consistent throughout the Cargo Securing Manual.

Notes: Plans should be included in the manual which incorporate information regarding the limitation of container masses to suit the specified lashing arrangements and specified ship motion criteria.

It is important that all of the information required in 1 to 6 above is included in the Cargo Securing Manual and that it is presented clearly in a realistic, practical and easy to use manner, in order to ensure that it is understood by the personnel intended to use it, both onboard and ashore.

If the ship has been assigned the special features notation ‘certified container securing arrangements’ or the plans of the container securing arrangements have been approved by Lloyd’s Register (or other international classification society), then copies of the approved plans should be included in the Cargo Securing Manual.

The alternative stowage patterns for containers of different dimensions will normally show stowage positions for 20’ containers, 40’ containers and combinations of 20’ and 40’ containers.

The stowage and securing plan may be based on all fully loaded containers. However, where specified loading patterns are used, the plans must include the maximum permissible vertical sequences of masses in stacks (i.e. the maximum permissible mass of each container in all stacks).

Maximum stack heights with respect to approved sight lines should normally comply with IMO Resolution MSC.31(63) Annex 2 Regulation V/22 - Navigation bridge visibility, unless a higher degree of visibility is required (e.g. Panama).

4.2.2 Stowage and securing principle on deck and under deck

This sub-chapter supports the interpretation of the stowage and securing plan with regard to container stowage, highlighting:

1 The use of the specified devices

2 Any guiding or limiting parameters, such as dimension of containers, maximum stack masses, sequence of masses in stacks, stacks affected by wind load, height of stacks.

This sub-chapter also contains specific warnings of possible consequences from misuse of securing devices or misinterpretation of instructions given.

1. Use of the specified devices:

The forces acting in the securing system are determined for each loading condition and associated set of motions of the ship. The securing system is designed on the basis of the most severe combination of these forces in such a manner that the forces on the containers and securing devices are within allowable limits. Where different arrangements of securing devices are used for different locations on the ship, the forces are calculated for the most severe condition applicable to each arrangement.

In order to avoid exceeding the maximum allowable forces on the containers and securing devices, it is essential that only the specified devices are used to secure the containers and that they are applied strictly in accordance with the stowage and securing plan contained within this manual.

2. Container stowage guiding or limiting parameters:

2.1 Dimension of containers

The securing system is based on 20’ and 40’ ISO standard containers with a height of 8’-6”, unless otherwise indicated in the stowage and securing plan. Containers with other dimensions (e.g. 10’ or 45’ long and 9’ or 9’-6” high) should not be stowed without special consideration.

2.2 Maximum stack masses

The maximum stack masses specified in the stowage and securing plan must not be exceeded.

2.3 Sequence of masses in stacks

The distribution of container masses in bays and stacks shown in the stowage and securing plan is the optimum for the given loading condition and associated set of ship motions. Any deviation from this distribution will have an effect on the magnitude and distribution of forces on the containers and securing devices. In order to avoid exceeding the maximum allowable forces on the containers and securing devices, the following principles must be applied:

(i) Shifting of masses down a stack is acceptable.
(ii) Shifting of masses up a stack is strictly not allowed.
(iii) When reducing mass at the bottom of a stack, the container masses above must be reduced accordingly to compensate for the rise in the stack centre of gravity.
(iv) Heavier containers should not be stowed on top of lighter containers.


2.4 Stacks affected by wind load

Wind forces are taken as acting on the exposed outer stacks of containers. Partially exposed stacks (e.g. inner stacks which are higher than outer stacks) are also considered as outer stacks.

2.5 Height of stacks

The maximum stack heights indicated in the stowage and securing plan must not be exceeded. Where outer stack heights are reduced but inner stack heights are not, resulting in so-called “step stacks”, the inner stacks must be considered as outer stacks.

Warnings of possible consequences from misuse of securing devices or misinterpretation of instructions given:

1. Misuse of securing devices

1.1 Twistlocks

Unlocked or not properly fitted twistlocks may result in;
- overloading stowage and securing devices
- damaging containers
- loss of containers overboard

1.2 Lashings and bridge fittings

Missing or not properly fitted lashings or bridge fittings may result in;
- overloading twistlocks
- damaging containers (racking)
- loss of containers overboard

1.3 Turnbuckles

Overtightening turnbuckles may result in;
- overloading lashings
- damaging containers
- loss of containers overboard

2. Misinterpretation of instructions

2.1 Dimensions of containers

Stowage of the wrong length of containers may result in;
- overloading stowage and securing devices
- damaging containers
- loss of containers overboard

Stowage of containers higher than 8’-6” may raise the stack centre of gravity, give a higher windage area, and require extension pieces for lashings. Failure to make allowance for these may result in;
- overloading stowage and securing devices
- damaging containers
- loss of containers overboard





2.2 Maximum stack masses

Exceeding the allowable stack mass (i.e. overweight stacks) may result in;
- overloading deck or hatch cover construction
- overloading stowage and securing devices
- damaging containers
- loss of containers overboard

2.3 Sequence of masses in stacks

Neglecting the permissible sequences of masses in stacks (e.g. heavy containers too high in the stack) may result in;
- overloading stowage and securing devices
- damaging containers
- loss of containers overboard

2.4 Stacks affected by wind load

Neglecting stacks affected by wind load (i.e. outer stacks) may result in;
- overloading stowage and securing devices
- damaging containers
- loss of containers overboard

2.5 Height of stacks

Exceeding the maximum permissible height of stacks may result in;
- impairing the navigation bridge visibility with respect to approved sight lines
- overloading stowage and securing devices
- damaging containers
- loss of containers overboard

2.6 Extreme partial loading

Extreme partial loading situations (i.e. single stacks higher and heavier than stacks on either side - “rugged sky-line”) on deck or in hold, should be avoided as far as practicable, or the stowage pattern must be specially considered. Otherwise, this may result in;
- overloading stowage and securing devices
- damaging containers
- loss of containers overboard

2.7 High initial stability

Exceeding the maximum GM for which the securing system is designed will give higher accelerations and forces which may result in;
- overloading the ship structure
- overloading stowage and securing devices
- damaging containers
- loss of containers overboard


4.3 Other allowable stowage patterns

This sub-chapter provides the necessary information for the master to deal with cargo stowage situations deviating from the general instructions addressed under sub-chapter 4.2, including appropriate warnings of possible consequences from misuse of securing devices or misinterpretation of instructions given.

Information is provided with regard to, inter alia:

1 alternative vertical sequence of masses in stacks;

2 stacks affected by wind load in the absence of outer stacks;

3 alternative stowage of containers with various dimensions; and

4 permissible reduction of securing effort with regard to lower stack masses, lesser stack heights or other reasons.

4.3.1 Alternative vertical sequences of masses in stacks

Where container masses deviate from the normal stowage and securing plan, the permitted alternative vertical sequences of masses in stacks must be in accordance with the principles given in sub-chapter 4.2.2 of this manual.

If these principles are not applied, the maximum allowable forces on containers and securing devices may be exceeded, resulting in damaged securing devices or containers and possible loss of containers overboard.

4.3.2 Stacks affected by wind load in the absence of outer stacks

When containers are missing from outboard stacks, inboard stacks will become subject to wind loads. Inboard stacks should then be considered as outboard stacks and it may be necessary to reduce stack heights, reduce stack masses, or provide additional securing devices (e.g. lashings).

Neglecting stacks affected by wind loads may result in damaged securing devices or containers and possible loss of containers overboard.

4.3.3 Alternative stowage of containers with various dimensions

The securing system is based on 20’ and 40’ ISO standard containers with a height of 8’-6”, unless otherwise indicated in the stowage and securing plan.

If 10’ or 45’ containers are carried, then the appropriate stowage pattern must be included in the Cargo Securing Manual.

If 9’-0” or 9’-6” high containers are carried, then compensation must be provided for the higher centre of gravity and increased windage area of the stacks. This may be achieved by reduction of stack height, reduction of top masses, shifting masses from top to bottom, or provision of additional securing devices (e.g. lashings). Lashings may require to be extended.

Failure to make allowance for the above may result in damaged securing devices or containers and possible loss of containers overboard.



4.3.4 Permissible reduction of securing effort with regard to lower stack masses, lesser stack heights or other reasons

No reduction of securing effort is permitted, unless otherwise specified in the container stowage and securing plan. All securing devices are to be fitted in accordance with the stowage and securing plan, even when stack masses are low or stack heights are reduced.

Failure to apply bridge fittings, lashing rods or other securing devices may result in overloaded twistlocks or other securing devices, damaged containers (racking) or loss of containers overboard.



4.4 Forces acting on cargo units

This sub-chapter presents the distribution of accelerations on which the stowage and securing system is based, and specifies the underlying condition of stability. Information on forces induced by wind and sea on deck cargo is provided.

It further contains information on the nominal increase of forces or accelerations with an increase of initial stability. Recommendations are given for reducing the risk of cargo losses from deck stowage by restrictions to stack masses or stack heights, where high initial stability cannot be avoided.

Note: This sub-chapter, as well as the rest of the Cargo Securing Manual, should be specific to the ship, realistic, practical, easy to use, and understood by the personnel intended to use it, both onboard and ashore.

The container stowage and securing system is based on a distribution of accelerations determined according to the Lloyd’s Register Rules and Regulations for the Classification of Ships, Part 3, Chapter 14 (or other international classification societies’ rules) and the following underlying condition of stability:-

GM metres
Roll period seconds Roll amplitude degrees
Pitch period seconds Pitch amplitude degrees
Heave period seconds Heave amplitude metres
Note: The maximum GM and other ship motion criteria should be entered in the above table.
The above GM is the maximum for which the stowing and securing system is designed. If, for any reason, the ship has to operate with an increased initial stability (i.e. larger GM), the accelerations and forces on containers will increase accordingly and a reduction in stack height, reduction of top masses or shifting of masses from top to bottom must be considered.
It should also be considered that such modifications to the container stowage arrangements will lower the centre of gravity of the ship and hence cause an additional increase in the GM. However, where high initial stability cannot be avoided, the overall effect of a reduction in stack height, reduction of top masses or shifting of masses from top to bottom should decrease the accelerations and forces on the containers and thereby reduce the risk of overloading the ship structure, overloading the stowage and securing devices, damaging containers, and loss of deck stowed containers overboard.
The forces on containers (including those induced by wind and sea on deck cargo) have to be calculated according to the Lloyd’s Register Rules and Regulations for the Classification of Ships, Part 3, Chapter 14 (or other international classification societies’ rules or other suitable method).
Note: These calculations are very laborious and it is recommended that computers and suitable computer programs be used to carry out the calculations and control special loading cases.


Appendix 1A
List and/or plan of the fixed cargo securing devices

List of fixed cargo securing devices on deck
Manufacturer
and
Type number Description
and
Sketch No.
*3 Material Identity
mark Loads (kN)
*1 No. Certificate No.
and
Issue Date
*4
BL PL MSL *2
MacGREGORCONVER
TF-11 Twistlock foundation
1300.5100 Structural steel
St52-3 CONVER
XX-XX
TF-11 500
420 375
315 250
210 T
S
C 160 HHO-0714-93

5.4.1993
MacGREGORCONVER
TF-12A Twistlock foundation
1300.5200 Structural steel
St52-3 CONVER
XX-XX
TF-12A 500
420 375
315 250
210 T
S
C 340 HHO-0714-93

5.4.1993
MacGREGOR CONVER
TF-11/140 Twistlock foundation
1302.1102 Structural steel
St52-3 CONVER
XX-XX
TF-11/140 500
420 375
315 250
210 T
S
C 24 HHO-0714-93

5.4.1993
MacGREGOR CONVER
TF-12A/140 Twistlock foundation
1302.1200d Structural steel
St52-3 CONVER
XX-XX
TF-12A/140 420
420 315
315 210
210 T
S
C 36 HHO-0826-96

18.09.2000
MacGREGOR CONVER
ZP-11 Fixed lashing plate
0900.2101c H.T. Steel

St52-3 CONVER
XX-XX
ZP-11 490 368 245 T
S
C 476 2890044

15.03.1994
MacGREGOR CONVER
ZP-12.1 Fixed lashing plate
0900.2210b H.T. Steel

St52-3 CONVER
XX-XX
ZP-12.1 490 368 245 T
S
C 350 2890045

15.03.1994


*1 BL : Breaking Load PL : Proof Load MSL : Maximum Securing Load
*2 T : Tensile Load S : Shear Load C : Compressive Load
*3 For ease of identification, sketches of the above devices are included in the following pages.
*4 Certificates for the above devices are included in Appendix 1B.
“Maximum Securing Load” (MSL) is a term used to define the allowable load capacity for a device used to secure cargo to a ship. “Safe Working Load” (SWL) may be substituted for MSL for securing purposes, provided this is equal to or exceeds the strength defined by MSL.
Notes: The fixed cargo securing devices shown in the above list have been included for example only. The same type of information should be provided for the specific fixed devices used to secure cargo on the particular ship for which the manual is intended.
For existing ships with existing non-standardised fixed securing devices, the information on MSL and location of securing points is deemed sufficient. For all new ships and new or replacement devices on existing ships, all of the above information is required.

List of fixed cargo securing devices in hold
Manufacturer
and
Type number Description
and
Sketch No.
*3 Material Identity
mark Loads (kN)
*1 No. Certificate No.
and
Issue Date
*4
BL PL MSL *2
MacGREGOR CONVER
LT-1 Twistlock pocket
1200.3100 Structural steel CONVER
XX-XX
LT-1 400
300 300
225 200
150 T
S
C 350 2890002

24.01.1990
MacGREGOR CONVER
ZU-UK/1 Lashing pot

2201.0156a Structural steel CONVER
XX-XX
ZU-UK/1 200 150 100 T
S
C 300 HHO-134-00

12.10.2000
MacGREGOR CONVER
APT-1SQ Dovetail foundation
1800.3110 Cast steel CONVER
XX-XX
APT-1SQ 400
300 300
225 200
150 T
S
C 160 2890015

27.08.1991
MacGREGOR CONVER
FL-1/b-36 Flush lashing eye
0930.0110a Forged steel CONVER
XX-XX
FL-1/b-36 360 270 180 T
S
C 220 HHO-1299-00

31.01.2000
MacGREGOR CONVER
BK-1 Flush deck socket
1500.5100 Structuralsteel CONVER
XX-XX
BK-1
300
225
150 T
S
C 175 2890005

24.01.1990
MacGREGOR CONVER
Type 1 Guide fitting
22011-L-20 Mild steel
43A CONVER
XX-XX
Type 1
420
315
210 T
S
C 70 HHO-1127-98

20.05.1998
MacGREGOR CONVER
Type 7 Welded bottom cone
2049.1180a Structural steel CONVER
XX-XX
Type 7
420
315
210 T
S
C 314 HHO-0794-95A
10.07.1998

*1 BL : Breaking Load PL : Proof Load MSL : Maximum Securing Load
*2 T : Tensile Load S : Shear Load C : Compressive Load
*3 For ease of identification, sketches of the above devices are included in the following pages.
*4 Certificates for the above devices are included in Appendix 1B.
“Maximum Securing Load” (MSL) is a term used to define the allowable load capacity for a device used to secure cargo to a ship. “Safe Working Load” (SWL) may be substituted for MSL for securing purposes, provided this is equal to or exceeds the strength defined by MSL.
Notes: The fixed cargo securing devices shown in the above list have been included for example only. The same type of information should be provided for the specific fixed devices used to secure cargo on the particular ship for which the manual is intended.
For existing ships with existing non-standardised fixed securing devices, the information on MSL and location of securing points is deemed sufficient. For all new ships and new or replacement devices on existing ships, all of the above information is required.

Sketches of fixed cargo securing devices
Note: For ease of identification, sketches/drawings of the fixed cargo securing devices as listed in this Appendix should be included in this section.

Plan of fixed cargo securing devices
Note: It may be more convenient for some or all of the required information for fixed cargo securing devices to be included in the manual in the form of a plan instead of lists.

Appendix 1B
Certification for fixed cargo securing devices

Certification for fixed cargo securing devices
Notes: Certificates should be included for each type of fixed cargo securing device, as far as practicable.
All new fixed cargo securing devices on new and existing ships are to be approved and certified in accordance with the current rules of the Classification Society. The certificates should include the information described in sub-chapter 2.1.1 of this example manual and as listed in Appendix 1A.

Appendix 1C
Layout and location of fixed cargo securing devices

Layout and location of fixed cargo securing devices
Notes: Where necessary, a plan should be included in the manual showing the layout and location of the fixed cargo securing devices on decks, hatchcovers, deckheads, bulkheads, web frames, stanchions, etc.
Probably the most appropriate way of providing this information is in the form of a general arrangement plan, showing a longitudinal profile and decks, including the tank top and bulkheads, as necessary.
In accordance with IMO MSC/Circ.745 sub-chapter 3.4, for ro-ro ships, this plan should show the layout of the fixed securing devices with identification of strength (MSL) as well as longitudinal and transverse distances between securing points.

Appendix 2A
List of portable cargo securing devices

List of portable cargo securing devices used on deck
Manufacturer
and
Type number Description
and
Sketch No.
*3 Material and
min. safe temp.(°C) Identity
mark Loads (kN)
*1 No. Certificate No.
and
Issue Date
*4
BL PL MSL *2
CSSC Kunshan
F3 Twistlock

K-TLS-1 H.T. Steel CSSC
F3 490
420 367
315 245
210 T
S
C 3612 SPA-CONT0004-98
18.05.1998
CSSC Kunshan
C4-3-50 Lashing bar

K-SH-MLR H.T. Steel CSSC
C4-3-50 490 367 245 T
S
C 956 SPA-CONT00001-98
18.05.1998
CSSC Kunshan
B5-1-50 Turnbuckle

K-TB6-1 Structural steel and Drop forged steel CSSC
B5-1-50 490 367 245 T
S
C 956 SPA-CONT0003-98
18.05.1998
MacGREGOR CONVER
H-2 Bridge fitting
A-2501.2200 Nodular cast iron/ Drop forged steel CONVER XX-XX
H-2 400

400 300

300 200

200 T
S
C 200 HHO-0230-98

17.08.1998
T
S
C
T
S
C


*1 BL : Breaking Load PL : Proof Load MSL : Maximum Securing Load
*2 T : Tensile Load S : Shear Load C : Compressive Load
*3 For ease of identification, sketches of the above devices are included in the following pages.
*4 Certificates for the above devices are included in Appendix 2B.
“Maximum Securing Load” (MSL) is a term used to define the allowable load capacity for a device used to secure cargo to a ship. “Safe Working Load” (SWL) may be substituted for MSL for securing purposes, provided this is equal to or exceeds the strength defined by MSL.
Notes: The portable cargo securing devices shown in the above list have been included for example only. The same type of information should be provided for the specific portable devices used to secure cargo on the particular ship for which the manual is intended.

List of portable cargo securing devices used in hold
Manufacturer
and
Type number Description
and
Sketch No.
*3 Material and
min. safe temp.(°C) Identity
mark Loads (kN)
*1 No. Certificate No.
and
Issue Date
*4
BL PL MSL *2
CSSC Kunshan
E1-5-3 Single stacker
K-E1-5-3 Structural steel CSSC
E1-5-3
490
367
245 T
S
C 1256 SPA-CONT0009-98
27.03.1998
CSSC Kunshan
E1-6-1 Sliding stacker
K-E1-6-1 Structural steel CSSC
E1-6-1
412
309
206 T
S
C 24 SPA-CONT0011-98
18.05.1998
CSSC Kunshan
E3-7A Double stacker
K-E3-7A Structural steel CSSC
E3-7A
412
309
206 T
S
C 616 SPA-CONT0012-98
18.05.1998
CSSC Kunshan
E3-7AP Double stacker
K-E3-7AP Structural steel CSSC
E3-7AP
412
309
206 T
S
C 126 SPA-CONT0013-98
18.05.1998
CSSC Kunshan
E3-7AT Double stacker
K-E3-7AT Structural steel CSSC
E3-7AT
412
309
206 T
S
C 24 SPA-CONT0014-98
18.05.1998
CSSC Kunshan
G1-2 Bridge fitting
K-BF Forged steel CSSC
G1-2 98 74 49 T
S
C 150 SPA-CONT0008-98
18.05.1998
Weissenfels
5163 LC Lashing chain (16mm)
5163 LC H.T. Steel Weisse-fels
5163 LC 256 192 128 T
S
C 300 8690010

23.10.1990
Weissenfels
5120 CT-A Chain tensioner
45.212/3/5 H.T. Steel Weisse-fels
5120 CT-A 320 240 160 T
S
C 300 8690008

25.07.1990
*1 BL : Breaking Load PL : Proof Load MSL : Maximum Securing Load
*2 T : Tensile Load S : Shear Load C : Compressive Load
*3 For ease of identification, sketches of the above devices are included in the following pages.
*4 Certificates for the above devices are included in Appendix 2B.
“Maximum Securing Load” (MSL) is a term used to define the allowable load capacity for a device used to secure cargo to a ship. “Safe Working Load” (SWL) may be substituted for MSL for securing purposes, provided this is equal to or exceeds the strength defined by MSL.
Notes: The portable cargo securing devices shown in the above list have been included for example only. The same type of information should be provided for the specific portable devices used to secure cargo on the particular ship for which the manual is intended.

List of portable cargo securing devices used in hold (continued)
Manufacturer
and
Type number Description
and
Sketch No.
*3 Material and
min. safe temp.(°C) Identity
mark Loads (kN)
*1 No. Certificate No.
and
Issue Date
*4
BL PL MSL *2
Mercantile
MSA – 100
(wire operated) Semi-automatic twistlock
MSA-WO-100
MSA-100 300
MSAWO-300 Body:
Ductile iron
Cone:
Forged steel Mercan-
tile
MSA-100 392
294 294
221 196
147 T
S
C 1500 6491003

09.02.2001
S.E.C
TL-M/L Midlock (penguin hook)
P-TL 9070
P-TL 9068
P-TL 9056 E
P-TL 9063 B H.T. Steel S.E.C.
TL-M/L 500
500 375
375 250
250 T
S
C 80 HHO-1313-00

29.05.2000






*1 BL : Breaking Load PL : Proof Load MSL : Maximum Securing Load
*2 T : Tensile Load S : Shear Load C : Compressive Load
*3 For ease of identification, sketches of the above devices are included in the following pages.
*4 Certificates for the above devices are included in Appendix 2B.
“Maximum Securing Load” (MSL) is a term used to define the allowable load capacity for a device used to secure cargo to a ship. “Safe Working Load” (SWL) may be substituted for MSL for securing purposes, provided this is equal to or exceeds the strength defined by MSL.
Notes: The portable cargo securing devices shown in the above list have been included for example only. The same type of information should be provided for the specific portable devices used to secure cargo on the particular ship for which the manual is intended.

Sketches of portable cargo securing devices
Note: For ease of identification, sketches/drawings of the portable cargo securing devices as listed in this Appendix should be included in this section.

Appendix 2B
Certification for portable cargo securing devices

Certification for portable cargo securing devices
Notes: Certificates should be included for each type of portable cargo securing device, as far as practicable.
All new portable cargo securing devices on new and existing ships are to be approved and certified in accordance with an appropriate national or international standard.
Portable cargo securing devices should be certified by some form of “Type Approval” system, although it is not considered essential that Lloyd’s Register should be the approval authority. Certificates supplied by other Classification Societies, National Administrations, approved testing houses/laboratories, and the manufacturer of the equipment will be accepted.
The certificates should include the information described in sub-chapter 2.2.1 of this example manual and as listed in Appendix 2A.

Appendix 2C
Manufacturers instructions on the proper handling of securing devices

Manufacturers instructions on the proper handling of securing devices
Note: The manufacturers instructions shown in the following figures 1 to 8 have been included for example only. The same type of information should be provided for the specific portable devices used to secure cargo on the particular ship for which the manual is intended.



Figure 1



Figure 2




Figure 3



Figure 4




Figure 5



Figure 6



Figure 7



Figure 8

Appendix 3
Record of cargo securing device inspection and maintenance

RECORD BOOK

Date of Inspection Signature ITEM
Name/ID Mark Results of Inspection.
Maintenance/Repair undertaken.
Renewals/Rejection.

9 comments:

  1. This site offers a huge range of different ratchets and accessories. You can track your order online, and they offer a discount if you buy in bulk.

    ReplyDelete
  2. I like your article and it really gives an outstanding idea that is very helpful for all the people on web.

    ReplyDelete
  3. Hello! I just want to give you a big thumbs up for the
    great information you have got right here on this post.

    I'll be returning to your web site for more soon.

    Also visit my page ... just click the following web site
    my webpage :: hardwood floors

    ReplyDelete
  4. Defіnitely bеlіeve that which you statеd.
    Your favorite juѕtifіcatіon seemeԁ
    to be on the net the sіmplest thing to be aωare of.
    Ι ѕay to you, I cеrtainly get ігκed whilе people consіdеr worries that thеy рlaіnly ԁo not κnoω about.
    You managed to hіt the nаil upon thе top as well as defіned out
    the whole thing withоut having side-effects , peορle can take
    a signal. Will likely be back to gеt moгe.
    Thаnks

    Also visіt my homepаge; may tinh

    ReplyDelete
  5. The full news ρrοgram is thаt уou cаn download Digіmon Αdventure οnline gаmes
    hundreԁs of οptions fог уоu to Ρick οut frоm.
    Loosе onlinе games aге plaіn
    lοts more than attractive to anyonе еducаtіоnal influеnсe
    thаt cаn maκe your childгen smartег
    and Sharpy.

    Tаkе а loоk at my wеbpаge ::
    mxh.a5f2s.info

    ReplyDelete
  6. Enter your bingо tο Act but no
    othеr gаmes. salаd dressing Up Gamеs
    Оnlіne: These are that makethese Disembarrass cybеrѕрace pictuгe gameѕ featurе of speech many adνеrtisements.
    Fοr instаnts,Babу TVhаs gаmeѕ that Start
    оut cοmmandmеnt golԁ by kill units, buіldings and hегoeѕ muѕuh.

    Baгbіe iѕ cеrtainly the all
    сloсk tіme computer games Eхperience much been founԁ with cοmplaintѕ Cаre
    wriѕt joіnt and Enԁorѕe paіn іn
    the neck. If you Pretermit watching the mіnd οf keeping chіldren gοod, and оnlіne pгedatoгs out.


    My ѕite; my.houselectrozik.com

    ReplyDelete
  7. Do nоt surf the intеrnet or niх and play theіr dаrling ρicture games they plаyed ωhen thеy ωere younger; not realizing it
    is poѕsіblе to Act aѕ thosе Bullу gаmes again tоԁay.

    With new еρochѕ, ѕome new units are uѕeаblе at
    tο Get ωοrd the гopes with glаncе.
    Ιt was really а when makе out, hit the Vіriditу nехt push.


    my pаge game

    ReplyDelete
  8. Remarkably, I'm presently getting a limitcheck mistake on an HP4700- less than 2 years aged! )Our now inoperative 4600 never ever had this concern when printing the specific very same file!

    Feel free to visit my web site: getemgirls.com

    ReplyDelete
  9. Thank you so much for spending more time and effort to share useful info of shipping companies with us.

    ReplyDelete