MEPC 63/23
Annex 9, page 1
Adopted on 2 March 2012
RECALLING article 38(a) of the Convention on the International Maritime Organization
concerning the functions of the Marine Environment Protection Committee (the Committee)
conferred upon it by international conventions for the prevention and control of marine
RECALLING ALSO that, at its sixty-second session, the Committee adopted, by resolution
MEPC.203(62), amendments to the Annex of the Protocol of 1997 to amend the International
Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol
of 1978 relating thereto (inclusion of regulations on energy efficiency for ships in MARPOL
Annex VI),
NOTING the amendments to MARPOL Annex VI adopted at its sixty-second session by
inclusion of a new chapter 4 for regulations on energy efficiency for ships, are expected to
enter into force on 1 January 2013 upon their acceptance on 1 July 2012,
NOTING ALSO that regulation 22 of MARPOL Annex VI, as amended, requires each ship to
keep on board a ship specific Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan taking into account
guidelines developed by the Organization,
RECOGNIZING that the amendments to MARPOL Annex VI requires the adoption of
relevant guidelines for smooth and uniform implementation of the regulations and to provide
sufficient lead time for industry to prepare,

HAVING CONSIDERED, at its sixty-third session, the draft 2012 Guidelines for the
development of a Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP),
1. ADOPTS the 2012 Guidelines for the development of a Ship Energy Efficiency
Management Plan (SEEMP), as set out at annex to the present resolution;
2. INVITES Administrations to take the annexed Guidelines into account when
developing and enacting national laws which give force to and implement provisions set forth
in regulation 22 of MARPOL Annex VI, as amended;
3. REQUESTS the Parties to MARPOL Annex VI and other Member Governments to
bring the annexed Guidelines related to the Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan
(SEEMP) to the attention of masters, seafarers, shipowners, ship operators and any other
interested groups;
4. AGREES to keep these Guidelines under review in light of the experience gained; and
5. REVOKES the Guidance circulated by MEPC.1/Circ.683, as from this date.
MEPC 63/23
Annex 9, page 2
MEPC 63/23
Annex 9, page 3
1.1 These Guidelines have been developed to assist with the preparation of Ship
Energy Efficiency Management Plan (hereafter referred to as the "SEEMP") that are required
by regulation 22 of Annex VI of the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution
from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto (MARPOL 73/78)
(hereafter referred to as the "Convention").
1.2 A SEEMP provides a possible approach for monitoring ship and fleet efficiency
performance over time and some options to be considered when seeking to optimize the
performance of the ship.
1.3 These Guidelines should be used primarily by ships' masters, operators and owners
in order to develop the SEEMP.
1.4 A sample form of a SEEMP is presented in the appendix for illustrative purposes.
2.1 For the purpose of these Guidelines, the definitions in the Annex VI of the
Convention apply.
2.2 "Company" means the owner of the ship or any other organization of person such as
the manager, or the bareboat charterer, who has assumed the responsibility for operation of
the ship from the shipowner.
2.3 "Safety Management system" means a structured and documented system enabling
company personnel to implement effectively the company safety and environmental
protection policy, as defined in paragraph 1.1 of International Safety Management Code.
3.1 In global terms it should be recognized that operational efficiencies delivered by a
large number of ship operators will make an invaluable contribution to reducing global carbon
3.2 The purpose of a SEEMP is to establish a mechanism for a company and/or a ship
to improve the energy efficiency of a ship's operation. Preferably, the ship-specific SEEMP is
linked to a broader corporate energy management policy for the company that owns,
operates or controls the ship, recognizing that no two shipping companies are the same, and
that ships operate under a wide range of different conditions.
3.3 Many companies will already have an environmental management system (EMS) in
place under ISO 14001 which contains procedures for selecting the best measures for
particular vessels and then setting objectives for the measurement of relevant parameters,
along with relevant control and feedback features. Monitoring of operational environmental
efficiency should therefore be treated as an integral element of broader company
management systems.
3.4 In addition, many companies already develop, implement and maintain a Safety
Management System. In such case, the SEEMP may form part of the ship's Safety
Management System.
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Annex 9, page 4
3.5 This document provides guidance for the development of a SEEMP that should be
adjusted to the characteristics and needs of individual companies and ships. The SEEMP is
intended to be a management tool to assist a company in managing the ongoing
environmental performance of its vessels and as such, it is recommended that a company
develops procedures for implementing the plan in a manner which limits any onboard
administrative burden to the minimum necessary.
3.6 The SEEMP should be developed as a ship-specific plan by the company.
The SEEMP seeks to improve a ship's energy efficiency through four steps: planning,
implementation, monitoring, and self-evaluation and improvement. These components play
a critical role in the continuous cycle to improve ship energy management. With each
iteration of the cycle, some elements of the SEEMP will necessarily change while others may
remain as before.
3.7 At all times safety considerations should be paramount. The trade a ship is engaged
in may determine the feasibility of the efficiency measures under consideration.
For example, ships that perform services at sea (pipe laying, seismic survey, OSVs,
dredgers, etc.) may choose different methods of improving energy efficiency when compared
to conventional cargo carriers. The length of voyage may also be an important parameter as
may trade specific safety considerations.
4.1 Planning
4.1.1 Planning is the most crucial stage of the SEEMP, in that it primarily determines both
the current status of ship energy usage and the expected improvement of ship energy
efficiency. Therefore, it is encouraged to devote sufficient time to planning so that the most
appropriate, effective and implementable plan can be developed.
Ship-specific measures
4.1.2 Recognizing that there are a variety of options to improve efficiency – speed
optimization, weather routeing and hull maintenance, for example – and that the best
package of measures for a ship to improve efficiency differs to a great extent depending
upon ship type, cargoes, routes and other factors, the specific measures for the ship to
improve energy efficiency should be identified in the first place. These measures should be
listed as a package of measures to be implemented, thus providing the overview of the
actions to be taken for that ship.
4.1.3 During this process, therefore, it is important to determine and understand the ship's
current status of energy usage. The SEEMP then identifies energy-saving measures that
have been undertaken, and determines how effective these measures are in terms of
improving energy efficiency. The SEEMP also identifies what measures can be adopted to
further improve the energy efficiency of the ship. It should be noted, however, that not all
measures can be applied to all ships, or even to the same ship under different operating
conditions and that some of them are mutually exclusive. Ideally, initial measures could yield
energy (and cost) saving results that then can be reinvested into more difficult or expensive
efficiency upgrades identified by the SEEMP.
4.1.4 Guidance on Best Practices for Fuel-Efficient Operation of Ships set out in
chapter 5, can be used to facilitate this part of the planning phase. Also, in the planning
process, particular consideration should be given to minimize any onboard administrative
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Annex 9, page 5
Company-specific measures
4.1.5 The improvement of energy efficiency of ship operation does not necessarily depend
on single ship management only. Rather, it may depend on many stakeholders including
ship repair yards, shipowners, operators, charterers, cargo owners, ports and traffic
management services. For example, "Just in time" – as explained in 5.5 – requires good
early communication among operators, ports and traffic management service. The better
coordination among such stakeholders is, the more improvement can be expected. In most
cases, such coordination or total management is better made by a company rather than by
a ship. In this sense, it is recommended that a company also establish an energy
management plan to manage its fleet (should it not have one in place already) and make
necessary coordination among stakeholders.
Human resource development
4.1.6 For effective and steady implementation of the adopted measures, raising
awareness of and providing necessary training for personnel both on shore and on board are
an important element. Such human resource development is encouraged and should be
considered as an important component of planning as well as a critical element of
Goal setting
4.1.7 The last part of planning is goal setting. It should be emphasized that the goal
setting is voluntary, that there is no need to announce the goal or the result to the public, and
that neither a company nor a ship are subject to external inspection. The purpose of goal
setting is to serve as a signal which involved people should be conscious of, to create a good
incentive for proper implementation, and then to increase commitment to the improvement of
energy efficiency. The goal can take any form, such as the annual fuel consumption or a
specific target of Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator (EEOI). Whatever the goal is, the
goal should be measurable and easy to understand.
4.2 Implementation
Establishment of implementation system
4.2.1 After a ship and a company identify the measures to be implemented, it is essential
to establish a system for implementation of the identified and selected measures by
developing the procedures for energy management, by defining tasks and by assigning them
to qualified personnel. Thus, the SEEMP should describe how each measure should be
implemented and who the responsible person(s) is. The implementation period (start and
end dates) of each selected measure should be indicated. The development of such a
system can be considered as a part of planning, and therefore may be completed at the
planning stage.
Implementation and record-keeping
4.2.2 The planned measures should be carried out in accordance with the predetermined
implementation system. Record-keeping for the implementation of each measure is
beneficial for self-evaluation at a later stage and should be encouraged. If any identified
measure cannot be implemented for any reason(s), the reason(s) should be recorded for
internal use.
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Annex 9, page 6
4.3 Monitoring
Monitoring tools
4.3.1 The energy efficiency of a ship should be monitored quantitatively. This should be
done by an established method, preferably by an international standard. The EEOI
developed by the Organization is one of the internationally established tools to obtain a
quantitative indicator of energy efficiency of a ship and/or fleet in operation, and can be used
for this purpose. Therefore, EEOI could be considered as the primary monitoring tool,
although other quantitative measures also may be appropriate.
4.3.2 If used, it is recommended that the EEOI is calculated in accordance with the
Guidelines developed by the Organization (MEPC.1/Circ.684), adjusted, as necessary, to a
specific ship and trade.
4.3.3 In addition to the EEOI, if convenient and/or beneficial for a ship or a company,
other measurement tools can be utilized. In the case where other monitoring tools are used,
the concept of the tool and the method of monitoring may be determined at the planning
Establishment of monitoring system
4.3.4 It should be noted that whatever measurement tools are used, continuous and
consistent data collection is the foundation of monitoring. To allow for meaningful and
consistent monitoring, the monitoring system, including the procedures for collecting data
and the assignment of responsible personnel, should be developed. The development of
such a system can be considered as a part of planning, and therefore should be completed
at the planning stage.
4.3.5 It should be noted that, in order to avoid unnecessary administrative burdens on
ships' staff, monitoring should be carried out as far as possible by shore staff, utilizing data
obtained from existing required records such as the official and engineering log-books and oil
record books, etc. Additional data could be obtained as appropriate.
Search and Rescue
4.3.6 When a ship diverts from its scheduled passage to engage in search and rescue
operations, it is recommended that data obtained during such operations is not used in ship
energy efficiency monitoring, and that such data may be recorded separately.
4.4 Self-evaluation and improvement
4.4.1 Self-evaluation and improvement is the final phase of the management cycle.
This phase should produce meaningful feedback for the coming first stage, i.e. planning
stage of the next improvement cycle.
4.4.2 The purpose of self-evaluation is to evaluate the effectiveness of the planned
measures and of their implementation, to deepen the understanding on the overall
characteristics of the ship's operation such as what types of measures can/cannot function
effectively, and how and/or why, to comprehend the trend of the efficiency improvement of
that ship and to develop the improved SEEMP for the next cycle.
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Annex 9, page 7
4.4.3 For this process, procedures for self-evaluation of ship energy management should
be developed. Furthermore, self-evaluation should be implemented periodically by using
data collected through monitoring. In addition, it is recommended to invest time in identifying
the cause-and-effect of the performance during the evaluated period for improving the next
stage of the management plan.
5.1 The search for efficiency across the entire transport chain takes responsibility
beyond what can be delivered by the owner/operator alone. A list of all the possible
stakeholders in the efficiency of a single voyage is long; obvious parties are designers,
shipyards and engine manufacturers for the characteristics of the ship, and charterers, ports
and vessel traffic management services, etc., for the specific voyage. All involved parties
should consider the inclusion of efficiency measures in their operations both individually and
Fuel-Efficient Operations
Improved voyage planning
5.2 The optimum route and improved efficiency can be achieved through the careful
planning and execution of voyages. Thorough voyage planning needs time, but a number of
different software tools are available for planning purposes.
5.3 IMO resolution A.893(21) (25 November 1999) on "Guidelines for voyage planning"
provides essential guidance for the ship's crew and voyage planners.
Weather routeing
5.4 Weather routeing has a high potential for efficiency savings on specific routes.
It is commercially available for all types of ship and for many trade areas. Significant savings
can be achieved, but conversely weather routeing may also increase fuel consumption for
a given voyage.
Just in time
5.5 Good early communication with the next port should be an aim in order to give
maximum notice of berth availability and facilitate the use of optimum speed where port
operational procedures support this approach.
5.6 Optimized port operation could involve a change in procedures involving different
handling arrangements in ports. Port authorities should be encouraged to maximize
efficiency and minimize delay.
Speed optimization
5.7 Speed optimization can produce significant savings. However, optimum speed
means the speed at which the fuel used per tonne mile is at a minimum level for that voyage.
It does not mean minimum speed; in fact, sailing at less than optimum speed will consume
more fuel rather than less. Reference should be made to the engine manufacturer's
power/consumption curve and the ship's propeller curve. Possible adverse consequences of
slow speed operation may include increased vibration and problems with soot deposits in
combustion chambers and exhaust systems. These possible consequences should be taken
into account.
MEPC 63/23
Annex 9, page 8
5.8 As part of the speed optimization process, due account may need to be taken of the
need to coordinate arrival times with the availability of loading/discharge berths, etc.
The number of ships engaged in a particular trade route may need to be taken into account
when considering speed optimization.
5.9 A gradual increase in speed when leaving a port or estuary whilst keeping the
engine load within certain limits may help to reduce fuel consumption.
5.10 It is recognized that under many charter parties the speed of the vessel is
determined by the charterer and not the operator. Efforts should be made when agreeing
charter party terms to encourage the ship to operate at optimum speed in order to maximize
energy efficiency.
Optimized shaft power
5.11 Operation at constant shaft RPM can be more efficient than continuously adjusting
speed through engine power (see paragraph 5.7). The use of automated engine
management systems to control speed rather than relying on human intervention may be
Optimized ship handling
Optimum trim
5.12 Most ships are designed to carry a designated amount of cargo at a certain speed
for a certain fuel consumption. This implies the specification of set trim conditions. Loaded
or unloaded, trim has a significant influence on the resistance of the ship through the water
and optimizing trim can deliver significant fuel savings. For any given draft there is a trim
condition that gives minimum resistance. In some ships, it is possible to assess optimum
trim conditions for fuel efficiency continuously throughout the voyage. Design or safety
factors may preclude full use of trim optimization.
Optimum ballast
5.13 Ballast should be adjusted taking into consideration the requirements to meet
optimum trim and steering conditions and optimum ballast conditions achieved through good
cargo planning.
5.14 When determining the optimum ballast conditions, the limits, conditions and ballast
management arrangements set out in the ship's Ballast Water Management Plan are to be
observed for that ship.
5.15 Ballast conditions have a significant impact on steering conditions and autopilot
settings and it needs to be noted that less ballast water does not necessarily mean the
highest efficiency.
Optimum propeller and propeller inflow considerations
5.16 Selection of the propeller is normally determined at the design and construction
stage of a ship's life but new developments in propeller design have made it possible for
retrofitting of later designs to deliver greater fuel economy. Whilst it is certainly for
consideration, the propeller is but one part of the propulsion train and a change of propeller
in isolation may have no effect on efficiency and may even increase fuel consumption.
MEPC 63/23
Annex 9, page 9
5.17 Improvements to the water inflow to the propeller using arrangements such as fins
and/or nozzles could increase propulsive efficiency power and hence reduce fuel
Optimum use of rudder and heading control systems (autopilots)
5.18 There have been large improvements in automated heading and steering control
systems technology. Whilst originally developed to make the bridge team more effective,
modern autopilots can achieve much more. An integrated Navigation and Command System
can achieve significant fuel savings by simply reducing the distance sailed "off track".
The principle is simple; better course control through less frequent and smaller corrections
will minimize losses due to rudder resistance. Retrofitting of a more efficient autopilot to
existing ships could be considered.
5.19 During approaches to ports and pilot stations the autopilot cannot always be used
efficiently as the rudder has to respond quickly to given commands. Furthermore at certain
stage of the voyage it may have to be deactivated or very carefully adjusted, i.e. heavy
weather and approaches to ports.
5.20 Consideration may be given to the retrofitting of improved rudder blade design
(e.g. "twist-flow" rudder).
Hull maintenance
5.21 Docking intervals should be integrated with ship operator's ongoing assessment of
ship performance. Hull resistance can be optimized by new technology-coating systems,
possibly in combination with cleaning intervals. Regular in-water inspection of the condition
of the hull is recommended.
5.22 Propeller cleaning and polishing or even appropriate coating may significantly
increase fuel efficiency. The need for ships to maintain efficiency through in-water hull
cleaning should be recognized and facilitated by port States.
5.23 Consideration may be given to the possibility of timely full removal and replacement
of underwater paint systems to avoid the increased hull roughness caused by repeated spot
blasting and repairs over multiple dockings.
5.24 Generally, the smoother the hull, the better the fuel efficiency.
Propulsion system
5.25 Marine diesel engines have a very high thermal efficiency (~50%). This excellent
performance is only exceeded by fuel cell technology with an average thermal efficiency
of 60 per cent. This is due to the systematic minimization of heat and mechanical loss.
In particular, the new breed of electronic controlled engines can provide efficiency gains.
However, specific training for relevant staff may need to be considered to maximize the
Propulsion system maintenance
5.26 Maintenance in accordance with manufacturers' instructions in the company's
planned maintenance schedule will also maintain efficiency. The use of engine condition
monitoring can be a useful tool to maintain high efficiency.
MEPC 63/23
Annex 9, page 10
5.27 Additional means to improve engine efficiency might include:
Use of fuel additives;
Adjustment of cylinder lubrication oil consumption;
Valve improvements;
Torque analysis; and
Automated engine monitoring systems.
Waste heat recovery
5.28 Waste heat recovery is now a commercially available technology for some ships.
Waste heat recovery systems use thermal heat losses from the exhaust gas for either
electricity generation or additional propulsion with a shaft motor.
5.29 It may not be possible to retrofit such systems into existing ships. However, they
may be a beneficial option for new ships. Shipbuilders should be encouraged to incorporate
new technology into their designs.
Improved fleet management
5.30 Better utilization of fleet capacity can often be achieved by improvements in fleet
planning. For example, it may be possible to avoid or reduce long ballast voyages through
improved fleet planning. There is opportunity here for charterers to promote efficiency.
This can be closely related to the concept of "just in time" arrivals.
5.31 Efficiency, reliability and maintenance-oriented data sharing within a company can
be used to promote best practice among ships within a company and should be actively
Improved cargo handling
5.32 Cargo handling is in most cases under the control of the port and optimum solutions
matched to ship and port requirements should be explored.
Energy management
5.33 A review of electrical services on board can reveal the potential for unexpected
efficiency gains. However care should be taken to avoid the creation of new safety hazards
when turning off electrical services (e.g. lighting). Thermal insulation is an obvious means of
saving energy. Also see comment below on shore power.
5.34 Optimization of reefer container stowage locations may be beneficial in reducing the
effect of heat transfer from compressor units. This might be combined as appropriate with
cargo tank heating, ventilation, etc. The use of water-cooled reefer plant with lower energy
consumption might also be considered.
Fuel Type
5.35 Use of emerging alternative fuels may be considered as a CO2 reduction method but
availability will often determine the applicability.
MEPC 63/23
Annex 9, page 11
Other measures
5.36 Development of computer software for the calculation of fuel consumption, for the
establishment of an emissions "footprint", to optimize operations, and the establishment of
goals for improvement and tracking of progress may be considered.
5.37 Renewable energy sources, such as wind, solar (or photovoltaic) cell technology,
have improved enormously in the recent years and should be considered for onboard
5.38 In some ports shore power may be available for some ships but this is generally
aimed at improving air quality in the port area. If the shore-based power source is carbon
efficient, there may be a net efficiency benefit. Ships may consider using onshore power if
5.39 Even wind assisted propulsion may be worthy of consideration.
5.40 Efforts could be made to source fuel of improved quality in order to minimize the
amount of fuel required to provide a given power output.
Compatibility of measures
5.41 This document indicates a wide variety of possibilities for energy efficiency
improvements for the existing fleet. While there are many options available, they are not
necessarily cumulative, are often area and trade dependent and likely to require the
agreement and support of a number of different stakeholders if they are to be utilized most
Age and operational service life of a ship
5.42 All measures identified in this document are potentially cost-effective as a result of
high oil prices. Measures previously considered unaffordable or commercially unattractive
may now be feasible and worthy of fresh consideration. Clearly, this equation is heavily
influenced by the remaining service life of a ship and the cost of fuel.
Trade and sailing area
5.43 The feasibility of many of the measures described in this guidance will be dependent
on the trade and sailing area of the vessel. Sometimes ships will change their trade areas as
a result of a change in chartering requirements but this cannot be taken as a general
assumption. For example, wind-enhanced power sources might not be feasible for short sea
shipping as these ships generally sail in areas with high traffic densities or in restricted
waterways. Another aspect is that the world's oceans and seas each have characteristic
conditions and so ships designed for specific routes and trades may not obtain the same
benefit by adopting the same measures or combination of measures as other ships. It is also
likely that some measures will have a greater or lesser effect in different sailing areas.
5.44 The trade a ship is engaged in may determine the feasibility of the efficiency
measures under consideration. For example, ships that perform services at sea (pipe laying,
seismic survey, OSVs, dredgers, etc.) may choose different methods of improving energy
efficiency when compared to conventional cargo carriers. The length of voyage may also be
an important parameter as may trade specific safety considerations. The pathway to the
most efficient combination of measures will be unique to each vessel within each shipping
MEPC 63/23
Annex 9, page 12
Name of Vessel: GT:
Vessel Type: Capacity:
Date of
Developed by:
Planned Date of
Next Evaluation:
Energy Efficiency
(including the starting date) Responsible Personnel
Weather Routeing

Contracted with [Service
providers] to use their
weather routeing system and
start using on-trial basis as
of 1 July 2012.

The master is responsible for
selecting the optimum route
based on the information
provided by [Service providers].
Speed Optimization
While the design speed
(85% MCR) is 19.0 kt, the
maximum speed is set
at 17.0 kt as of 1 July 2012.
The master is responsible for
keeping the ship's speed. The
log-book entry should be checked
every day.
Description of monitoring tools
Measurable goals
Procedures of evaluation
(Annexes 10 to 34 to the report are contained in document MEPC 63/23/Add.1)

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