TYPES OF SHIP



أنواع السفن
TYPES
OF
SHIP




1. Liner.....سفن تعمل على خط ملاحي منتظم
Liner ship Service – is a service that operates within a schedule and has a fixed port rotation with published dates of calls at the advertised ports. A liner service generally fulfills the schedule unless in cases where a call at one of the ports has been unduly delayed due to natural or up-normal cause.
وهى تلك السفن سواء كانت بضائع أو نقل أشخاص التي تعمل بين مجموعة من الموانيء طبقاً لجدول زمني معلن مسبقا . ولا يدخل في هذا النوع السفن الصغيرة التي تقل حمولتها عن 1000 طن متري كذلك لا يدخل ضمن هذا النوع السفن النيلية
Nile cruiser
حتى لو كانت تعمل داخل منطقة محدودة .
من أمثلة السفن التى تعمل على خط ملاحي منتظم سفن نقل البضائع كسفن الحاويات التي تعمل بين المواني الأوربية والموانيء الأسترالية




2.Tramp .....سفن جوالة
Tramp or tramper is a ship that has no fixed routing or itinerary or schedule and is available at short notice (or fixture) to load any cargo from any port to any port
وهى تلك السفن التي لا تعمل على خط وفقاً لجدول زمني معلن أي إنها
غير خطية أي إنها تعمل وفقاً للرحلات المتاحة وحسب الطلب.




3. Passenger Ships .....سفن الركاب
is a ship whose primary function is to carry passengers. The category does not include cargo vessels which have accommodations for limited numbers of passengers, such as the ubiquitous twelve-passenger freighters once common on the seas in which the transport of passengers is secondary to the carriage of freight. The type does however include many classes of ships designed to transport substantial numbers of passengers as well as freight. Indeed, until recently virtually all ocean liners were able to transport mail, package freight and express, and other cargo in addition to passenger luggage, and were equipped with cargo holds and derricks, kingposts, or other cargo-handling gear for that purpose. Only in more recent ocean liners and in virtually all cruise ships has this cargo capacity been eliminated.
While typically passenger ships are part of the merchant marine, passenger ships have also been used as troopships and often are commissioned as naval ships when used as for that purpose.
هي تلك السفن التي تصنف أساساً لنقل الركاب ومع ذلك فقد تحمل بعض البضائع . يتعين (Certificate) على السفينة التي تعمل كسفينة ركاب الحصول على شهادة بذلك
(Ferry )والتي تختلف حسب السفينة فهناك العبارات
والتي يسمح لها فقط بالإبحار في منطقة محددة مثال ذلك العبارات التي تعمل بين موانيء دول البحر المتوسط . تتوقف سعة السفينة على تجهيز السفينة وعدد الأسرة المتاحة




4. Tanker..... سفن الصهاريج
A tanker (or tank ship or tankship) is a ship designed to transport liquids in bulk. Major types of tankship include the oil tanker, the chemical tanker, and the liquefied natural gas carrier.
وتنقسم هذه النوعية من السفن إلى سفن صهاريج بضاعة جافة وسفن صهاريج البضائع السائلة كالبترول ونظراً لزيادة الطلب وتجارة البترول من الدول المنتجة والدول المستهلكة فقد تطورت هذه النوعية من السفن حتى بلغت سعة بعض السفن إلى أكثر من 150.000 طن .
كما إنها أصبحت مجهزة بمضخات تضخ البترول بأنواعه المختلفة أيضا تتمتع هذه السفن بوجود نظام تهوية لتجنب خطر الحريق


5.Liquid Gas Carriers.....سفن نقل الغاز السائل
An LNG carrier is a tank ship designed for transporting liquefied natural gas (LNG). As the LNG market grows rapidly, the fleet of LNG carriers continues to experience tremendous growth.
تنقل هذه النوعية من البضائع إما تحت ضغط أو مبرده من أمثلة ذلك: البوتوجاز والغاز الطبيعي .
- Liquefied petroleum gas carrier (LPG)
- Liquefied natural gas carrier (LNG)


6. BULK CARRIER OBO, ORE / bulk/ oil......سفن نقل البضائع الصب
A bulk carrier, bulk freighter, or bulker is a merchant ship specially designed to transport unpackaged bulk cargo, such as grains, coal, ore, and cement in its cargo holds. Since the first specialized bulk carrier was built in 1852, economic forces have fueled the development of these ships, causing them to grow in size and sophistication. Today's bulkers are specially designed to maximize capacity, safety, efficiency, and to be able to withstand the rigors of their work.


Today, bulkers make up 40% of the world's merchant fleets and range in size from single-hold mini-bulkers to mammoth ore ships able to carry 400,000 metric tons of deadweight (DWT). A number of specialized designs exist: some can unload their own cargo, some depend on port facilities for unloading, and some even package the cargo as it is loaded. Over half of all bulkers have Greek, Japanese, or Chinese owners and more than a quarter are registered in Panama. Korea is the largest single builder of bulkers, and 82% of these ships were built in Asia.


A bulk carrier's crew participates in the loading and unloading of cargo, navigating the ship, and keeping its machinery and equipment properly maintained. Loading and unloading the cargo is difficult, dangerous, and can take up to 120 hours on larger ships. Crews can range in size from three people on the smallest ships to over 30 on the largest.
Bulk cargo can be very dense, corrosive, or abrasive. This can present safety problems: cargo shifting, spontaneous combustion, and cargo saturation can threaten a ship. The use of ships that are old and have corrosion problems has been linked to a spate of bulker sinkings in the 1990s, as have the bulker's large hatchways, important for efficient cargo handling. New international regulations have since been introduced to improve ship design and inspection, and to streamline the process of abandoning ship.
وهى سفن تعمل في نقل المعادن الخام والبضائع الصب كالحبوب والبترول ولكن يلاحظ أنها غالباً لا تنقل بترول من بضاعة أخرى في ذات الوقت


7. Container.....سفن الحاويات  
Container ships are cargo ships that carry all of their load in truck-size intermodal containers, in a technique called containerization. They form a common means of commercial intermodal freight transport.




8. Reefers.....سفن الثلاجات
A refrigerator (or reefer) ship is a type of ship typically used to transport perishable commodities which require temperature-controlled transportation, mostly fruits, meat, fish, vegetables, dairy products and other foodstuffs


9. RO – RO.....سفن الدحرجة 
Roll-on/roll-off (RORO or ro-ro) ships are vessels designed to carry wheeled cargo such as automobiles, trucks, semi-trailer trucks, trailers or railroad cars that are driven on and off the ship on their own wheels. This is in contrast to lo-lo (lift-on/lift-off) vessels which use a crane to load and unload cargo.
RORO vessels have built-in ramps which allow the cargo to be efficiently "rolled on" and "rolled off" the vessel when in port. While smaller ferries that operate across rivers and other short distances often have built-in ramps, the term RORO is generally reserved for larger ocean-going vessels. The ramps and doors may be stern-only, or bow and stern for quick loading.


10. Tugs.....القاطرات وسفن الإمداد التموين
A tugboat (tug) is a boat that maneuvers vessels by pushing or towing them. Tugs move vessels that either should not move themselves, such as ships in a crowded harbor or a narrow canal, or those that cannot move by themselves, such as barges, disabled ships, or oil platforms. Tugboats are powerful for their size and strongly built, and some are ocean-going. Some tugboats serve as icebreakers or salvage boats. Early tugboats had steam engines, but today have diesel engines. Many tugboats have firefighting monitors, allowing them to assist in firefighting, especially in harbors.